. Unexplored Spain. Hunting; Natural history. The Goto Donana 41 —there pours into Andalucia an inrush of African and sub- tropical bird-forms. The sunlit woodland gleams with brilliant rollers and golden orioles, while bee-eaters, rivalling the rainbow in gorgeous hues, poise and dart in the sunshine, and their harsh " chack, chack," resounds on every side. Woodchats, spotted cuckoos, hoopoes, and russet nightjars appear; lovely wheatears in cream and black adorn the palm-clad plain. With them comes the deluge—no epitomised summary is possible when, within brief limits, the whole fe

- Image ID: RDN8WW
The Book Worm / Alamy Stock Photo
Image ID: RDN8WW
. Unexplored Spain. Hunting; Natural history. The Goto Donana 41 —there pours into Andalucia an inrush of African and sub- tropical bird-forms. The sunlit woodland gleams with brilliant rollers and golden orioles, while bee-eaters, rivalling the rainbow in gorgeous hues, poise and dart in the sunshine, and their harsh " chack, chack," resounds on every side. Woodchats, spotted cuckoos, hoopoes, and russet nightjars appear; lovely wheatears in cream and black adorn the palm-clad plain. With them comes the deluge—no epitomised summary is possible when, within brief limits, the whole feathered population of southern Europe is metamorphosed. The winter half has gone north ; its place is filled by the tropical inrush aforesaid. Warblers and waders, larks, finches, and fly - catchers, herons, ibis, ducks, gulls, and terns—all orders and, genera pour in pro- miscuously, defying cursory analysis. A single class only will here be specific- ally mentioned, and that because it throws light on climatic con- ditions. Among these vernal arrivals come certain raptores in countless numbers—all those which are dependent on reptile and insect food. For even in sunny Andalucia the larger reptiles and insects hibernate ; hence their persecutors (including various eagles, buzzards, and harriers, with kites and kestrels in thousands) are driven to seek winter-quarters in Africa. Another phenomenon deserves note. Weeks, nay months, after this great vernal upturn in bird-life has completed its revolution, and when the newcomers have already half finished the duties of incubation, then in May suddenly occurs an utterly belated little migration quite disconnected from all the rest. This is the passage, or rather through-transit, of those far-flying cosmopolites of space that make the whole world their home. They have been wintering in South Africa and Madagascar, in. GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOO {Oxylophus glandarius). Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page i

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