. The encyclopedia of practical horticulture; a reference system of commercial horticulture, covering the practical and scientific phases of horticulture, with special reference to fruits and vegetables;. Gardening; Fruit-culture; Vegetable gardening. APPLES 87. Pig. 2. Trees Like This With a Constricted Trunk, Were Probably Top-grafted About 1850. Conn. Sta. at the time of this visit there was not a fruit tree living which was there at the earlier date. Some attribute this to a cold freeze that occurred in 1890, some to lack of rain. The fact remains, however, that the orchards that were planted where there was sufficient seepage from the hill- sides and sufficient depth of soil, are still living and the trees are in a healthy con- dition. ^ ~ On account of the importance of this subject the opinions of many observers are given, covering the conditions of vari- ous localities. Granville Lowther Soils for Apples Apples will grow on a great variety of soils, but most kinds do best on deep, rich clays or loams. Soils very rich in nitrogen should be avoided as they will produce too much wood growth at the expense of fruit. Very few soils are too rich for apples, however. Many farmers plant their fruit trees on the poorest and roughest pieces of land on the farm, be- cause such soil will not produce any other crop profitably. If the trees do not pro- duce good fruit in a few years, without any attention, the orchard is abandoned and the farmer says fruit growing is a fail- ure. Does he expect this of other crops and has he a right to expect it of apples? Give apple trees the care and attention that other crops get and they will re- spond by producing profitable crops of fruit. It is a mistake to expect trees to grow well on poor soil, for food is just as essential to tree growth as to the growth of cotton or corn. It requires a large quantity of food to produce a crop of trees and even a greater quantity to produce the fruit. H. C. Thompson, Agricultural College, Miss.