. The encyclopedia of practical horticulture; a reference system of commercial horticulture, covering the practical and scientific phases of horticulture, with special reference to fruits and vegetables;. Gardening; Fruit-culture; Vegetable gardening. 370 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL HORTICULTURE These things, then, have been factors toward the establishing of growers' as- sociations, not the least function of which is to maintain the standards of grade and pack. The methods by which the associa- tions have gone about accomplishing this end have been, generally speaking, two, inspection and direc

- Image ID: RD8W5B
. The encyclopedia of practical horticulture; a reference system of commercial horticulture, covering the practical and scientific phases of horticulture, with special reference to fruits and vegetables;. Gardening; Fruit-culture; Vegetable gardening. 370 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL HORTICULTURE These things, then, have been factors toward the establishing of growers' as- sociations, not the least function of which is to maintain the standards of grade and pack. The methods by which the associa- tions have gone about accomplishing this end have been, generally speaking, two, inspection and direc
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Image ID: RD8W5B
. The encyclopedia of practical horticulture; a reference system of commercial horticulture, covering the practical and scientific phases of horticulture, with special reference to fruits and vegetables;. Gardening; Fruit-culture; Vegetable gardening. 370 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL HORTICULTURE These things, then, have been factors toward the establishing of growers' as- sociations, not the least function of which is to maintain the standards of grade and pack. The methods by which the associa- tions have gone about accomplishing this end have been, generally speaking, two, inspection and direct management. In- spection, when it takes the exclusive form of examination of the product after it is packed ready for market, is rarely an entire success, being a corrective rather than a preventive measure. Where the inspector visits the packing house of the various growers, examining the sorted apples before they are packed and giving instructions where necessary, the case is a step in advance. Although here the workers are responsible to the grower, and after the inspector leaves may re- ceive conflicting orders from their em- ployer. The best system for securing the desired result is now conceded to be one in which the selling agency takes entire charge of grading and packing the fruit, the workers being responsible only to the agency. This system is carried on under two forms, one where the fruit is graded and packed in the packing house of the grower, but with a foreman and crew em- ployed and furnished by the dealer or as- sociation (perhaps the grower not being allowed even to help in the work), the other where the work is done in the ware- house of the agency, or in a building built and equipped by it especially for use as a packing house, and with a force like- wise responsible only to the management of the agency. An example of an associa- tion operating successfully under the first form is the Hood River Apple Growers' Union, of Hood River, Oregon; an exam- ple of

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