. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. TUNICATE HEART PACEMAKERS 169 the heart, which would decrease the safety margin for conduction; Kriebel, 1967a). Sometimes the electrical records from isolated hearts showed even more complex rhythms. Careful study revealed that the complexities could be resolved into super- imposed series of activities of two pacemaker centers, each showing periods of acceleration and deceleration (Figs. 2B and 3A). B. Properties of the middle pacemaker (the C center of v. Skramlik, 1938} Already mentioned previously, under normal circumsta

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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. TUNICATE HEART PACEMAKERS 169 the heart, which would decrease the safety margin for conduction; Kriebel, 1967a). Sometimes the electrical records from isolated hearts showed even more complex rhythms. Careful study revealed that the complexities could be resolved into super- imposed series of activities of two pacemaker centers, each showing periods of acceleration and deceleration (Figs. 2B and 3A). B. Properties of the middle pacemaker (the C center of v. Skramlik, 1938} Already mentioned previously, under normal circumsta Stock Photo
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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. TUNICATE HEART PACEMAKERS 169 the heart, which would decrease the safety margin for conduction; Kriebel, 1967a). Sometimes the electrical records from isolated hearts showed even more complex rhythms. Careful study revealed that the complexities could be resolved into super- imposed series of activities of two pacemaker centers, each showing periods of acceleration and deceleration (Figs. 2B and 3A). B. Properties of the middle pacemaker (the C center of v. Skramlik, 1938} Already mentioned previously, under normal circumsta
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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. TUNICATE HEART PACEMAKERS 169 the heart, which would decrease the safety margin for conduction; Kriebel, 1967a). Sometimes the electrical records from isolated hearts showed even more complex rhythms. Careful study revealed that the complexities could be resolved into super- imposed series of activities of two pacemaker centers, each showing periods of acceleration and deceleration (Figs. 2B and 3A). B. Properties of the middle pacemaker (the C center of v. Skramlik, 1938} Already mentioned previously, under normal circumstances, only the end pace- makers are active. However, when animals with exposed hearts were mechanically stimulated to contract, the blood pressure increased to such an extent that no blood was expelled and the end pacemakers either became irregular or stopped (Kriebel,. 10 sec. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ); Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ). Annual report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Moore, Carl Richard, 1892-; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983. Woods Hole, Mass. : Marine Biological Laboratory