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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. ANEMONE CLONING AND AGGRESSION 245. Figure 1. Numbers of common anemone species from the rocky shores of Pacific North America, New Zealand and tropical Australia, grouped by habitat (upper shore or lower shore), intraspecific aggres- siveness (aggressive or non-aggressive), and mode of growth (clonal or aclonal). The 2X2X2 table shows simultaneous interaction among the three factors for the 35 species (center); and the three 2k 2 tables show interactions for two factors at a time [clonal growth pattern vs. aggression (above

. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. ANEMONE CLONING AND AGGRESSION 245. Figure 1. Numbers of common anemone species from the rocky shores of Pacific North America, New Zealand and tropical Australia, grouped by habitat (upper shore or lower shore), intraspecific aggres- siveness (aggressive or non-aggressive), and mode of growth (clonal or aclonal). The 2X2X2 table shows simultaneous interaction among the three factors for the 35 species (center); and the three 2k 2 tables show interactions for two factors at a time [clonal growth pattern vs. aggression (above Stock Photo
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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. ANEMONE CLONING AND AGGRESSION 245. Figure 1. Numbers of common anemone species from the rocky shores of Pacific North America, New Zealand and tropical Australia, grouped by habitat (upper shore or lower shore), intraspecific aggres- siveness (aggressive or non-aggressive), and mode of growth (clonal or aclonal). The 2X2X2 table shows simultaneous interaction among the three factors for the 35 species (center); and the three 2k 2 tables show interactions for two factors at a time [clonal growth pattern vs. aggression (above), clonal growth vs. shore position (right), and shore position vs. aggression (left)]. than those on the upper shore (P < .05). The sample is not large enough to reveal any differences between indi- vidual cells in the 2 X 2 X 2 table except the most ex- treme: high, clonal aggressive species are smaller on aver- age than low, aclonal, non-aggressive species, (Tukey- Kramer method for multiple comparisons, P < .05 for the experimentwise error rate). An energy efficiency model: the scaling of interference costs for clonal and aclonal growth Both the rate of encounter with competitors and the rate of energy intake should vary with the size and shape of the individual, and with the size and shape of the clone (for clonal species). The model developed below predicts the scaling of interference cost as a fraction of the total energy intake for isometric aclonal growth, and for two dimensional growth of a compact clone. The assumptions of the model are as follows: (1) aclo- nal growth is assumed to be isometric (no change in shape), as it is for at least some anemone adults (Sebens, 1981). (2) Clones are assumed to form a compact sheet of equal-sized individuals that are attached to the sub- stratum at the base, and that use the upper surface (S) for feeding. (3) Energy intake rate is assumed to increase in direct proportion to the feeding surface area, (Sebens, 1981, 1982a).

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