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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 424 R. L. MILLER AND K. R. KJNG TABLE II Oikopleura sperm trail loop and circle characteristics before and during sperm chemotaxis Loops0 Circles0 Diameter (a, b) Length (1) Diameter (d) Circumference (C = d) a X b Before 9.4 X 3.4 Mm (5)* 24.7 ± 1.14 M :m(5) 97.7 ± 5.8 Mm (20) 306.8 ± 15.9 MI m (20) During 24.2 X 17.9 Mm i(25) 66.5 ± 4.4 MI" M25) 42.4 ± 5.5 Mm (9) 133.3 ± 17.4 MI m(9) * number of measurements. 0 refer to Figure 4. Table II and Figure 4 present measurements of the loops and circles made in control and e

. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 424 R. L. MILLER AND K. R. KJNG TABLE II Oikopleura sperm trail loop and circle characteristics before and during sperm chemotaxis Loops0 Circles0 Diameter (a, b) Length (1) Diameter (d) Circumference (C = d) a X b Before 9.4 X 3.4 Mm (5)* 24.7 ± 1.14 M :m(5) 97.7 ± 5.8 Mm (20) 306.8 ± 15.9 MI m (20) During 24.2 X 17.9 Mm i(25) 66.5 ± 4.4 MI" M25) 42.4 ± 5.5 Mm (9) 133.3 ± 17.4 MI m(9) * number of measurements. 0 refer to Figure 4. Table II and Figure 4 present measurements of the loops and circles made in control and e Stock Photo
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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 424 R. L. MILLER AND K. R. KJNG TABLE II Oikopleura sperm trail loop and circle characteristics before and during sperm chemotaxis Loops0 Circles0 Diameter (a, b) Length (1) Diameter (d) Circumference (C = d) a X b Before 9.4 X 3.4 Mm (5)* 24.7 ± 1.14 M :m(5) 97.7 ± 5.8 Mm (20) 306.8 ± 15.9 MI m (20) During 24.2 X 17.9 Mm i(25) 66.5 ± 4.4 MI" M25) 42.4 ± 5.5 Mm (9) 133.3 ± 17.4 MI m(9) * number of measurements. 0 refer to Figure 4. Table II and Figure 4 present measurements of the loops and circles made in control and experimental trails. The average loop is 2.7 times longer and 5 times broader in the experimental (attraction) trails than during the control trails. During the first looping maneuver, the velocity of the sperm increases significantly (paired Mest; P < 0.001) (Table I) and the new speed (109.9 nm/s) is maintained for the rest of the trail. Once the attracted sperm arrive at the pipette tip, they begin to circle around it (Fig. 5, 6A). The circles of all the sperm become more or less concentric, with an average diameter half of those made during normal swimming (Table II; compare Figs. 1A, B with Figs. 5, 6A). The concentric circular paths enlarge in diameter, resembling those seen prior to attraction (Fig. 5A, 6B). All sperm swim counter- clockwise during this behavior as they did in the circles and loops made before attraction. Their velocity remains high (109.9 ^m/s). The cells seem to have entered a new, stable motility configuration and behave as though the attraction gradient is no longer present. The result of this sequence of behaviors is a rapid shift of the sperm population toward the pipette tip. By the end of the film sequence, few sperm are found at the margins of the area of observation. SPERM TRAIL LOOP AND CIRCLE PARAMETERS angle of intersection less than 180°. angle of intersection at ~* 180° '1. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned

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