. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 224 REPORTS FROM THE MBL GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Reference: Bio/. Bull. 2(!-: -225. (October 2003) © 2003 Marine Bu•!.-• .!ory /i Recognition in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Based on Olfactory Cues A'. D. Mann', E. R. Tnrnell1, J. Ateimr, ami G. Gerlach1'" ' Marine Biological Laboratory; Woods Hole, MA ' Boston University Marine Program, Woods Hole, MA Genetic analyses of numerous fish species have shown that shoals formed by larvae often consist of closely related kin (1). Aggregating with kin may be an altruis

- Image ID: RHM82J
. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 224 REPORTS FROM THE MBL GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Reference: Bio/. Bull. 2(!-: -225. (October 2003) © 2003 Marine Bu•!.-• .!ory /i Recognition in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Based on Olfactory Cues A'. D. Mann', E. R. Tnrnell1, J. Ateimr, ami G. Gerlach1'" ' Marine Biological Laboratory; Woods Hole, MA ' Boston University Marine Program, Woods Hole, MA Genetic analyses of numerous fish species have shown that shoals formed by larvae often consist of closely related kin (1). Aggregating with kin may be an altruis
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Image ID: RHM82J
. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 224 REPORTS FROM THE MBL GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS Reference: Bio/. Bull. 2(!-: -225. (October 2003) © 2003 Marine Bu•!.-• .!ory /i Recognition in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Based on Olfactory Cues A'. D. Mann', E. R. Tnrnell1, J. Ateimr, ami G. Gerlach1'" ' Marine Biological Laboratory; Woods Hole, MA ' Boston University Marine Program, Woods Hole, MA Genetic analyses of numerous fish species have shown that shoals formed by larvae often consist of closely related kin (1). Aggregating with kin may be an altruistic trait that evolved through kin selection (2). Individuals would increase their inclu- sive fitness by sharing the benefits of shoaling among related individuals (3). Laboratory experiments on recognition of kin v\. non-kin groups of Atlantic Salmon (Salnw sular) (4) demonstrated possible advantages: kin groups had fewer aggressive interactions, used a greater proportion of "threat" behavior as opposed to fighting, and subordinates especially had improved growth. The mechanisms by which these kin groups develop and stay separate from each other are not known. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a source of individual odors released into the water via urine (5). Such pheromones might be involved in olfactory kin recognition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish can recognize kin based on olfactory cues. Zebrafish (Danio rt-rin) live in freshwater streams and rice paddies in the Ganges River of East India, Bangladesh, and Burma. Although this species is widely used as a model in genetic and developmental research, little is known about its natural behavior. Zebrafish spawn up to several hundred eggs at a time, and these develop in the substrate without any parental care. Larvae (G.G. pers. obs.), and sometimes adults, can be observed in shoals (6. 7), but their genetic relatedness is unknown. We observed wild-type juvenile zebraf

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