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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 100- ct u 60 90 120 PP. B B 30 60 90 120 TIME (min) Figure 1. Comparison of the Peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses to a 15% liver extract meal in dogs. PYY into the circulation after ingestion of a meal. These observations were held to make an endocrine role for PYY unlikely. However, subsequent studies in dog (Tay- lor, 1985) and man (Adrian et ai. 1985a) have demon- strated release of PYY into the circulation, supporting a true hormonal role for PYY. These apparently conflict- ing findings may refle

. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 100- ct u 60 90 120 PP. B B 30 60 90 120 TIME (min) Figure 1. Comparison of the Peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses to a 15% liver extract meal in dogs. PYY into the circulation after ingestion of a meal. These observations were held to make an endocrine role for PYY unlikely. However, subsequent studies in dog (Tay- lor, 1985) and man (Adrian et ai. 1985a) have demon- strated release of PYY into the circulation, supporting a true hormonal role for PYY. These apparently conflict- ing findings may refle Stock Photo
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1604 x 1558 px | 27.2 x 26.4 cm | 10.7 x 10.4 inches | 150dpi

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. The Biological bulletin. Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology. 100- ct u 60 90 120 PP. B B 30 60 90 120 TIME (min) Figure 1. Comparison of the Peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses to a 15% liver extract meal in dogs. PYY into the circulation after ingestion of a meal. These observations were held to make an endocrine role for PYY unlikely. However, subsequent studies in dog (Tay- lor, 1985) and man (Adrian et ai. 1985a) have demon- strated release of PYY into the circulation, supporting a true hormonal role for PYY. These apparently conflict- ing findings may reflect greater sensitivity of the radioim- munoassays employed in the latter two studies. The PYY response to meals is distinctly different from that of its sister peptide, PP. The PP response is charac- terized (Floyd et a!.. 1976; Taylor elal., 1978) by an early peak approximately 15-30 min after ingestion of the meal (Fig. 1), which reflects the importance of the ce- phalic-vagal and gastric phases of PP release. In contrast, PYY release after a meal is not as rapid, nor does it ex- hibit the same vagal-cholinergic dependence that charac- terizes the release of its sister peptide (Taylor et ai, 1978; Taylor, 1985). Although significant increases in PYY levels can be observed 30 min after the ingestion of a meal, the peak response does not occur for several hours. As shown in Figure 1, PYY concentrations are still in- creasing in the dog 4 h after the ingestion of a meal. The most potent stimulant of PYY release observed to date is the presence of fat in the intestinal lumen (Aponte etui, 1985; Pappas t>?c//., 1986a; Adrian etai, 1986). As anticipated, PYY release is markedly enhanced in pa- tients with steatorrhea due to the presence of malab- sorbed fat in the distal gut (Adrian et ai, 1986). As an example, patients with short bowel syndrome have markedly enhanced PYY release, and the response to in- gested meals occurs much more rapidly than in normal subjects. In contrast,

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