. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). a total barrier to upstream movements of WSCT. Wales Creek is one of the few streams in the Blackfoot Watershed where a significant amount of the watershed consists of weathered granite. Streams with this geologic composition are particularly vulnerable to sediment related impacts. In 2003, we began to assess Wales Creek from a restoration perspective. The assessment will carry into 2004 and focus on irrigation and in
RMRHT9D5. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). a total barrier to upstream movements of WSCT. Wales Creek is one of the few streams in the Blackfoot Watershed where a significant amount of the watershed consists of weathered granite. Streams with this geologic composition are particularly vulnerable to sediment related impacts. In 2003, we began to assess Wales Creek from a restoration perspective. The assessment will carry into 2004 and focus on irrigation and in
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). [T^ Core Area'Watersheds Figure 2. Core area watersheds and proposed critical bull trout habitat for the Blackfoot River Watershed (excluding the Clearwater drainage). Structure throughout the watershed; 3) maintain and increase the connectivity between the Blackfoot River and its tributaries; 4) establish a baseline of redd counts in all drainages that presently support spawning migratory bull trout; and 5) maintain
RMRHT9W5. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). [T^ Core Area'Watersheds Figure 2. Core area watersheds and proposed critical bull trout habitat for the Blackfoot River Watershed (excluding the Clearwater drainage). Structure throughout the watershed; 3) maintain and increase the connectivity between the Blackfoot River and its tributaries; 4) establish a baseline of redd counts in all drainages that presently support spawning migratory bull trout; and 5) maintain
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Whirling Disease Status Whirling disease, caused by the myxosporean parasite Myxoholus cerebralis, was first detected in the Blackfoot River in 1995 near Ovando, MT. Since then, the disease has increased in distribution and intensity. It now infects the lower 122 miles of the mainstem Blackfoot River and continues to expand in the lower reaches of some tributaries of Blackfoot River (Figure 55. Tables 13 and 14). 273
RMRHT917. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Whirling Disease Status Whirling disease, caused by the myxosporean parasite Myxoholus cerebralis, was first detected in the Blackfoot River in 1995 near Ovando, MT. Since then, the disease has increased in distribution and intensity. It now infects the lower 122 miles of the mainstem Blackfoot River and continues to expand in the lower reaches of some tributaries of Blackfoot River (Figure 55. Tables 13 and 14). 273
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). (Solvelimis fontinalis). artic grayling (Thymallus arcticiis), white sucker {Catostomus commcrsoni). fathead minnow (Pimephales pomelas). northern pike {Esox lucius), brook stickleback {Culaea inconstans). Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibhosiis), largemouth bass {Micropteriis sulmoides) and yellow perch (Percaflavescem). Most salmonids (WSCT. bull trout, rainbow trout and brown trout) in the river system exhibit fluvial migra
RMRHT9RP. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). (Solvelimis fontinalis). artic grayling (Thymallus arcticiis), white sucker {Catostomus commcrsoni). fathead minnow (Pimephales pomelas). northern pike {Esox lucius), brook stickleback {Culaea inconstans). Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibhosiis), largemouth bass {Micropteriis sulmoides) and yellow perch (Percaflavescem). Most salmonids (WSCT. bull trout, rainbow trout and brown trout) in the river system exhibit fluvial migra
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). densities below the lower diversion compared with above the upper diversion (Figure 33). Rock Creek Restoration Objectives: restore migration corridors for native fish; restore natural stream morphology to improve spawning and rearing conditions for all fish using the system. Project Summary Rock Creek, the largest tributary to the lower North Fork of the Blackfoot River, has been the focus of restoration since 1990.
RMRHT9DG. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). densities below the lower diversion compared with above the upper diversion (Figure 33). Rock Creek Restoration Objectives: restore migration corridors for native fish; restore natural stream morphology to improve spawning and rearing conditions for all fish using the system. Project Summary Rock Creek, the largest tributary to the lower North Fork of the Blackfoot River, has been the focus of restoration since 1990.
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). and Yellowstone cutthroat trout, overharvest and competition with introduced brook trout and brown trout (Likncs 1984; Allendorf and Leary 1988; Liknes and Graham 1988; Mclntyre and Rieman 1995; Shepard et al. 2003). In the Blackfoot Watershed, WSCT occupy -93% of historical range, compared with -39% of occupied historical range statewide. The Blackfoot River also supports one of the larger fluvial meta-populations of
RMRHT9TK. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). and Yellowstone cutthroat trout, overharvest and competition with introduced brook trout and brown trout (Likncs 1984; Allendorf and Leary 1988; Liknes and Graham 1988; Mclntyre and Rieman 1995; Shepard et al. 2003). In the Blackfoot Watershed, WSCT occupy -93% of historical range, compared with -39% of occupied historical range statewide. The Blackfoot River also supports one of the larger fluvial meta-populations of
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). In 2003, landowners approached FWP requesting an evaluation of Elk Creek, and the development of a restoration plan. In order to begin the process of developing a restoration project, we resurveyed long-term fish population survey sections, and collected water temperatures at three sites. We also enlisted the assistance of: 1) a range conservationist to evaluate current and alternative riparian grazing strategies, and
RMRHT9KA. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). In 2003, landowners approached FWP requesting an evaluation of Elk Creek, and the development of a restoration plan. In order to begin the process of developing a restoration project, we resurveyed long-term fish population survey sections, and collected water temperatures at three sites. We also enlisted the assistance of: 1) a range conservationist to evaluate current and alternative riparian grazing strategies, and
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Blackfoot River and tributary temperatures Collecting watershed-wide water temperatures is a major element to a habitat assessment and monitoring program (Figure 12). Temperatures studies during 2002 and 2003 involved: 1) baseline and long-term data collections at established sites throughout the Blackfoot watershed; 2) assessing tributary restoration projects; 3) identifying thermal regimes (natural and anthropogenic
RMRHT9NR. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Blackfoot River and tributary temperatures Collecting watershed-wide water temperatures is a major element to a habitat assessment and monitoring program (Figure 12). Temperatures studies during 2002 and 2003 involved: 1) baseline and long-term data collections at established sites throughout the Blackfoot watershed; 2) assessing tributary restoration projects; 3) identifying thermal regimes (natural and anthropogenic
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). temperatures significantly lower during winter months, and conditions more favorable to anchor ice formation (Figure 51). Kleinschmidt and Nevada Spring Creeks had winter temperatures that averaged near 43" and 45"F during winter months, and were warmer than other current bull trout spawning sites. When comparing these two sites, Nevada Spring Creek temperatures were more consistent and lluctuated 1" F
RMRHT94J. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). temperatures significantly lower during winter months, and conditions more favorable to anchor ice formation (Figure 51). Kleinschmidt and Nevada Spring Creeks had winter temperatures that averaged near 43" and 45"F during winter months, and were warmer than other current bull trout spawning sites. When comparing these two sites, Nevada Spring Creek temperatures were more consistent and lluctuated 1" F
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Executive Summary The 2002 and 2003 reporting period was a time of continued drought in the Blackfoot Watershed. The drought began in 2000 and involved elevated summer water temperatures, below normal mid-summer and winter flow conditions, and extreme wildfires. The drought contributed to fish population declines in the Blackfoot River and many tributaries. Despite the drought, fish populations in many restored stream
RMRHT9WD. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Executive Summary The 2002 and 2003 reporting period was a time of continued drought in the Blackfoot Watershed. The drought began in 2000 and involved elevated summer water temperatures, below normal mid-summer and winter flow conditions, and extreme wildfires. The drought contributed to fish population declines in the Blackfoot River and many tributaries. Despite the drought, fish populations in many restored stream
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Photo I. Fish impinged on the outer portion of the screen against the screen in area Proper operation and maintenance of a fish screen is equally important to quality screen design (Nordlum 1996) in order to assure long-term effectiveness and fimction. In the Blackfoot River drainage, inadequate maintenance has reduced the effectiveness of many mechanical fish screens (paddlewheel and rotating drum). Because it has no
RMRHT921. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Photo I. Fish impinged on the outer portion of the screen against the screen in area Proper operation and maintenance of a fish screen is equally important to quality screen design (Nordlum 1996) in order to assure long-term effectiveness and fimction. In the Blackfoot River drainage, inadequate maintenance has reduced the effectiveness of many mechanical fish screens (paddlewheel and rotating drum). Because it has no
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Although bull trout are particularly sensitive to many threats, whirling disease appears to he less of a concern for bull trout than for other salmonids. Compared with WSCT, rainbow trout and brook trout, bull trout exhibit a greater physiological resistance to whirling disease (Vincent 2001). In 2002 as whirling disease infection rates continued to escalate, we expanded whirling disease monitoring to the bull trout s
RMRHT9TW. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). Although bull trout are particularly sensitive to many threats, whirling disease appears to he less of a concern for bull trout than for other salmonids. Compared with WSCT, rainbow trout and brook trout, bull trout exhibit a greater physiological resistance to whirling disease (Vincent 2001). In 2002 as whirling disease infection rates continued to escalate, we expanded whirling disease monitoring to the bull trout s
. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). period, and damage (hoof-shear) to stream banks. Livestock have since been fenced from the riparian area. The survey site at mile 0.8 was not subject to streamside livestock damage. Water temperature monitoring shows moderately significant declines (Paired t- test; P = 0.08) following reconstruction, with maximum water temperatures -15" F cooler post-project compared with pre-project. Whirling disease sampling sh
RMRHT9HT. The Big Blackfoot River restoration progress report for 2002 and 2003 . Fish populations; Fishes; Fishery management; Trout fisheries; Stream ecology; Blackfoot River (Mont. ). period, and damage (hoof-shear) to stream banks. Livestock have since been fenced from the riparian area. The survey site at mile 0.8 was not subject to streamside livestock damage. Water temperature monitoring shows moderately significant declines (Paired t- test; P = 0.08) following reconstruction, with maximum water temperatures -15" F cooler post-project compared with pre-project. Whirling disease sampling sh