. The anatomical record. Anatomy; Anatomy. 90 The Anatomical Eecord. There occur then two connections of the columella with the suspen- sorium of the lower jaw, one with the squamosum, which is itself closely connected with the quadrate, and one with the quadrate directly, the first being the primary connection both in ontogeny and, we believe, in phylogeny. The view advanced by Gaupp and Driiner that there are two connections of the columella with the quadrate, one above the facial nerve and another below it. has l)een mentioned at the beginning of this. Fig. 7.—Ambystoma puuctatuin. small ad

- Image ID: RN9E47
. The anatomical record. Anatomy; Anatomy. 90 The Anatomical Eecord. There occur then two connections of the columella with the suspen- sorium of the lower jaw, one with the squamosum, which is itself closely connected with the quadrate, and one with the quadrate directly, the first being the primary connection both in ontogeny and, we believe, in phylogeny. The view advanced by Gaupp and Driiner that there are two connections of the columella with the quadrate, one above the facial nerve and another below it. has l)een mentioned at the beginning of this. Fig. 7.—Ambystoma puuctatuin. small ad
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Image ID: RN9E47
. The anatomical record. Anatomy; Anatomy. 90 The Anatomical Eecord. There occur then two connections of the columella with the suspen- sorium of the lower jaw, one with the squamosum, which is itself closely connected with the quadrate, and one with the quadrate directly, the first being the primary connection both in ontogeny and, we believe, in phylogeny. The view advanced by Gaupp and Driiner that there are two connections of the columella with the quadrate, one above the facial nerve and another below it. has l)een mentioned at the beginning of this. Fig. 7.—Ambystoma puuctatuin. small adult 100 mm. long; section through caudal part of the operculum; ec, ear capsule: p., perilymphatic prominence; cp., cavum perilymphaticum: vj.. vena jugularis; op., operculum. article. This view is apparently due primarily to the description by Huxley of a connection between the columella and quadrate cartilage in Necturus, above which the facial nerve passes. As it is recogiiized that this description is erroneous, it is evident that two distinct types of connections of this kind do not exist. In no form known to us does the facial nerve pass above the columellar-squamosal connection with the exception of Necturus and Proteus, in which forms the relations have already been described. In these two forms, as has been previously described by us and others, all the facial nerve passes ventral to (below) the connection in question except the jugular branch, which passes dorsal to (above) it. Since the facial nerve in different forms has often different relations to neighboring structures, as has been pointed out by Driiner and Kingsbury, this different relation in the Proteidse and in the other l^rodeles does not seem to us to offer an obstacle to the. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Bardeen, C