Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
RMFMEXM4Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . exceptionof the samples from Wenona the roof shales of the district showconsiderable similarity in their burning behavior. They vitrify atcomparatively low temperatures, show a short heat range in burning,and overburn easily. As has been shown these characteristics elim-inate them as possibilities for the manufacture of vitrified wares suchas paving brick. They may be used for more or less porous productssuch as common brick, front brick, and hollow ware in case the mold-ing and drying properties are satisfactory. Common brick requires
RM2ANFKJGTests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . exceptionof the samples from Wenona the roof shales of the district showconsiderable similarity in their burning behavior. They vitrify atcomparatively low temperatures, show a short heat range in burning,and overburn easily. As has been shown these characteristics elim-inate them as possibilities for the manufacture of vitrified wares suchas paving brick. They may be used for more or less porous productssuch as common brick, front brick, and hollow ware in case the mold-ing and drying properties are satisfactory. Common brick requires
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
RMFMEXM5Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . sts, trials l-)4x 1-Hx 3V? were hand molded andrepressed. For determining tempering water, volume shrinkage, lineardrying and burning shrinkages, porosity, tempering range, and color,briquets lx lx 3J4 were also hand molded and repressed. Allbriquets were dried in the open air at room temperature (about 70° F ). ( )xidation Tests During the process of burning red and buff clays, it is necessaryto burn out the carbon and sulphur and to convert the ferrous iron tothe ferric form before the temperature can be raised safely and theware vit
RM2ANFMTATests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . sts, trials l-)4x 1-Hx 3V? were hand molded andrepressed. For determining tempering water, volume shrinkage, lineardrying and burning shrinkages, porosity, tempering range, and color,briquets lx lx 3J4 were also hand molded and repressed. Allbriquets were dried in the open air at room temperature (about 70° F ). ( )xidation Tests During the process of burning red and buff clays, it is necessaryto burn out the carbon and sulphur and to convert the ferrous iron tothe ferric form before the temperature can be raised safely and theware vit
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
RMFMEXM6Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines (1917)
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . ure. Summarizing the above remarks, we may list the following gen-eral requirements for the various wares : Paving-brick clays should have a fair plasticity, should not lam-inate seriously, should dry safely and oxidize easily. They should notvitrify too easily and should show a good heat range at low porosity. Front brick require clays of good molding and drying properties,easy of oxidation, of good color, and a fair range of burning tem-perature at which uniform colors can be obtained. 2Purdy, Ross C, Paving brick and paving brick cl
RM2ANFN58Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . ure. Summarizing the above remarks, we may list the following gen-eral requirements for the various wares : Paving-brick clays should have a fair plasticity, should not lam-inate seriously, should dry safely and oxidize easily. They should notvitrify too easily and should show a good heat range at low porosity. Front brick require clays of good molding and drying properties,easy of oxidation, of good color, and a fair range of burning tem-perature at which uniform colors can be obtained. 2Purdy, Ross C, Paving brick and paving brick cl
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . rning, but those that showed a black core of any considerable sizeat the end of the ten-hour period may be eliminated as commercialpossibilities for any type of ware. An exception may be noted in clays which remain quite porousat temperatures well above those usually used for oxidization anddo not vitrify. In burning some materials of this sort, ground coalis actually added to the clay to aid in the burning of the ware. Insuch cases only porous common brick may be made. Clays that crack or warp badly in burning can not be used forany w
RM2ANFNNRTests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . rning, but those that showed a black core of any considerable sizeat the end of the ten-hour period may be eliminated as commercialpossibilities for any type of ware. An exception may be noted in clays which remain quite porousat temperatures well above those usually used for oxidization anddo not vitrify. In burning some materials of this sort, ground coalis actually added to the clay to aid in the burning of the ware. Insuch cases only porous common brick may be made. Clays that crack or warp badly in burning can not be used forany w
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . H^&** ? ^P* -...?? . <ti»  Jaj&k ^Mh , . J^ ^^^-^ J^^^ a b Fig. 6.—a, oxidizing briquet from Group I showing black core approaching the circular form; h, oxidizing cylinder from Group II. fell into the sheet-iron pan and was swept around and out of the 5-inchslot where it was collected and passed through a ten-mesh screen ;the tailings thrown back into the dry pan. By this arrangement thepan became thoroughly and automatically cleaned ready for the nextsample. The time required to prepare a sample was approximately20 to 30 minutes.
RM2ANFM15Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . H^&** ? ^P* -...?? . <ti» _Jaj&k ^Mh , . J^ ^^^-^ J^^^ a b Fig. 6.—a, oxidizing briquet from Group I showing black core approaching the circular form; h, oxidizing cylinder from Group II. fell into the sheet-iron pan and was swept around and out of the 5-inchslot where it was collected and passed through a ten-mesh screen ;the tailings thrown back into the dry pan. By this arrangement thepan became thoroughly and automatically cleaned ready for the nextsample. The time required to prepare a sample was approximately20 to 30 minutes.
Tests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . in vacuo for 24 hours ( fig. 5). Thesaturated weights and suspended weights were determined and theporosities calculated from the formula W — D W x 100 porosity Where : W = saturated weight.D = dry weight,S = weight suspended in water TESTS OX SAMPLES I T GROUP II Group 11 contains 83 different samples, including Xos. 26 to 108.In testing so large a number it was obvious from the experiencegained in Group I that it would be necessary to save time and expenseby devising more efficient means for preparing the samples and mold-ing the br
RM2ANFMCHTests on clay materials available in Illinois coal mines . in vacuo for 24 hours ( fig. 5). Thesaturated weights and suspended weights were determined and theporosities calculated from the formula W — D W x 100 porosity Where : W = saturated weight.D = dry weight,S = weight suspended in water TESTS OX SAMPLES I T GROUP II Group 11 contains 83 different samples, including Xos. 26 to 108.In testing so large a number it was obvious from the experiencegained in Group I that it would be necessary to save time and expenseby devising more efficient means for preparing the samples and mold-ing the br