RM2JKFTMP–In this image: SARS-CoV-2 (pink) and ACE2 receptor (white) RNA were found in salivary gland cells, which are outlined in green.
RM2JKFTN0–When analyzing brain cells, a computer program
RM2JKFTD7–This image integrates the thousands of known molecular and genetic interactions that occur inside our bodies using a computer program called Cytoscape. Images like this are known as network wiring diagrams, but Cytoscape creator Trey Ideker jokingly calls them quothairballs and quot because they can be so convoluted, complex, and difficult to unravel. Cytoscape comes with tools to help scientists assess specific interactions, such as differences between species or between diseased and diseased cells.
RM2JKFTCX–A parvalbumin (green) containing an interneuron is stained for the glutamate receptor subunit GluA4 (red).
RM2JKFTBK–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a natural killer cell from a human donor.
RM2JKFTE7–Jellyfish are particularly good models for studying the evolution of embryonic tissue layers. Although they are primitive, jellyfish have a nervous system (colored in green here) and a musculature (red). Cell nuclei are stained blue. By studying the distribution of tissues in this simple organism, scientists can learn about the evolution of shapes and characteristics of various animals.
RM2JKFTDE–In this image of a genetically modified mouse model, lung cancer caused by the oncogene Kras is shown in purple. As a key driver of many types of cancer, the Kras gene is a promising target for new cancer therapies.
RM2JKFTEP–Single-cell RNA sequencing helped scientists map the development of sensory (pink) hair cells in the cochlea of a newborn mouse.
RM2JKFTD1–The researchers used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to rapidly search the entire human genome for genetic suspects behind inherited versions of ALS and FTD.
RM2JKFT6B–Contraction of microtubules. Top, microtubules (blue) in a resting cardiac muscle cell. Bottom, contracted microtubules (blue) in a moving cardiac muscle cell.
RM2JKFTNE–Scanning electron microscopy image illustrates tiny extracellular links between stereocilia of an inner ear hair cell. One type of link, the tip link, rests the top of the shorter stereocilia to the side of a longer stereocilia and is crucial for hearing. The yellow dots in the inset are the immuno-OR particles that label specific proteins comprising the spike binding.
RM2JKFTEA–Langat virus infection (bright green) in the tick's midgut (black) is shown six days post-infection in this fluorescence image.
RM2JKFTCD–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a natural killer cell from a human donor.
RM2JKFTK9–Osteochondrotricular stem cells (red) are a newly identified type of bone stem cell that appears to be vital for skeletal development. Research on these stem cells could lead to treatments for osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and fractures.
RM2JKFT5P–3D structure of a melanoma cell derived by ion abrasion scanning electron microscopy.
RM2JKFTR2–Zinc is necessary for the functioning of more than 300 enzymes, including those that help regulate gene expression, in various organisms, including humans. Researchers are studying how plants acquire, sequester and distribute zinc to find ways to increase the zinc content of crops to improve human health. Using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technology, they created this heat map of zinc levels in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant leaf.
RM2JKFTHT–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a VERO E6 cell (purple) showing elongated cell projections and signs of apoptosis, after infection with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (pink), which were isolated from a specimen the patient. Image requested from the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.
RM2JKFTCA–Hepatocytes, like the one shown here, are the most abundant cell type in the human liver. They play an important role in building proteins produced from bile, a fluid that helps digest fats and chemically process molecules normally found in the body, such as hormones, as well as foreign substances such as drugs and alcohol.
RM2JKFTP9–Of the three muscle fibers shown here, the one on the right and the one on the left are normal. The middle fiber is deficient a large protein called nebulin (blue). Nebulin plays a number of roles in the structure and function of muscles, and its absence is associated with certain neuromuscular disorders.
RM2JKFTEE–Colorized transmission electron micrograph MERS virus particles (blue) found near the periphery of an infected VERO E6 cell (yellow).
RM2JKFTDJ–Multispectral confocal microscopy of a fibroblast cell providing fluorescent proteins targeted to organelles: lysosomes, mitochondria, endoplast reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi and lipid droplets. Scale bar, 10 'm.
RM2JKFTPD–This spread spectrum imaging scan, which samples 257 directions over a range of different gradient strengths, shows tractography at a triple crossover in the white matter of the parietal lobe.
RM2JKFTD5–Leptospira, shown here in green, is a type (genus) of elongated, spiral-shaped bacteria. The infection can cause Weil's disease, a type of jaundice, in humans.
RM2JKFTKP–A new clinical study led by the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health, will follow 500 people over five years to learn more about the natural history of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the latest technology to visualize eye structures and measure their function, researchers hope to identify biomarkers of disease progression, long before it progresses to advanced disease and results in vision loss. AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in people age 50 and older in the United States.
RM2JKFTPA–Trypanosoma brucei is a single-celled parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans. Scientific negatives have been studying trypanosomes for some time because of their effects on human and animal health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, since these organisms evolved on a separate path from animals and plants over a billion years ago, researchers are studying trypanosomes to find out what traits they may have that are common or different. from those of other eukaryotes (i.e. organisms with a nucleus and mitochondria). This image shows the cell membrane of T.
RM2JKFTR8–Treponema pallidum, the bacterium responsible for syphilis.
RM2JKFTBM–A fruit fly ovary, shown here, contains up to 20 eggs. Ripe fruit flies aren't just tiny insects that buzz around overripe fruit, they're a venerable scientific tool. Fly research has shed light on many aspects of human biology, including biological rhythms, learning, memory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Another reason fruit flies are so useful in a lab (and so effective in fruit bowls) is that they reproduce quickly. About three generations can be studied in a single month.
RM2JKFTCF–Confocal image showing the accumulation of myeloid hematopoietic cells throughout the mesenteric adipose tissue.
RM2JKFTMG–This image shows the restoration of dystrophin (stained green) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. DMD is caused by mutations in the DMD gene that affect the production of dystrophin, a protein involved in muscle cell membrane structure. Researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to correct a mutation, resulting in dystrophin restoration. This technology could be therapeutic in up to 60% of DMD patient mutations. Nuclei in the muscle cells are stained blue and the contractile protein myosin is stained red.
RM2JKFT5A–The figure is an electron micrograph showing abnormally shaped and structurally abnormal mitochondria in the liver of a mutant mouse that models methylmalonic acidemia.
RM2JKFTB3–A research team led by scientists from the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has determined how several antibodies induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain cancers, block infection of cells grown in the laboratory. They then used this information to develop new candidate vaccines that, in animals, elicited potent anti-EBV antibody responses that blocked infection of cell types implicated in EBV-associated cancers.
RM2JKFTE1–A microscopic image of liver tissue affected by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The large and small white spots are excess fat droplets that develop liver cells (hepatocytes).
RM2JKFT6C–In addition to blood vessels (red) and nerve cells (green), this mouse brain has abnormal clumps of proteins called plaques (blue). These plaques multiply in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease and
RM2JKFTA8–Red: TUJ1 neuronal marker (beta III tubulin).
RM2JKFTD6–Ebola virus isolated in November 2014 from patient blood samples obtained in Mali. The virus was isolated on Vero cells.
RM2JKFTPF–Scanning electron microscope image of regulatory T cells (red) interacting with antigen-presenting cells (blue). T regulatory cells can suppress T cell responses to maintain homeostasis in the immune system.
RM2JKFT9G–Confocal microscope image of laser-induced choroidal neovascular complex (CNV) 14 days after laser injury. RPE-choroid flat mount (brown brown rat). The IB4 lectin (red) labels endothelial cells in the CNV complex. Phalloidin (green) labels f-actin in RPE junctional complexes and stress fibers. Cell nuclei are labeled with DAPI (blue).
RM2JKFTJT–Brain of a mouse with Niemann-Pick type C1 neurodegenerative disease.
RM2JKFTM9–Most tumors are made up of many different types of cancer cells (tumor heterogeneity), which often harbor unique genetic mutations. Researchers want to determine how different subgroups of cancer cells within a tumor exhibit the ability of cancer cells to metastasize or develop resistance to therapeutic agents. This image of a mouse model of pancreatic cancer shows a multicolor lineage (and ampquotconfetti and ampquot) plot and demonstrates that a significant number of metastases presented from clusters of heterogeneous cells rather than outgrowth of single cells.
RM2JKFTMM–Sensory nerve marker CGRP staining (green) of the inferior alveolar nerve in adult mouse incisors.
RM2JKFTHY–Scanning electron micrograph of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis.
RM2JKFTDB–A human neutrophil interacts with Klebsiella pneumoniae (pink), a multidrug-resistant bacterium that causes serious hospital infections.
RM2JKFTF0–Diaphragmatic muscle from a dystrophin-deficient mouse treated with SU9516 showing nuclei (blue), myofibers (boxed in red) and regenerating muscle fibers (green).
RM2JKFT66–Photomicrographs of the drug AZT were taken at 30x and 50x magnifications. To illuminate the crystals, polarized and dark field illumination techniques were used. AZT is thought to help prevent the replication of HIV, the AIDS virus, also known as HTLV-III.
RM2JKFTN4–These skin cancer cells show from a mouse, an animal commonly used to study human diseases (including many types of cancer) and to test the effectiveness of drugs. The two cells contained here are linked by actin (green), a cell skeleton protein. Although actin is required by many cells for normal movement, it also allows cancer cells to spread to other parts of the body.
RM2JKFTNJ–This confocal microscopy image shows the developing face of a 6-day-old zebrafish larva.
RM2JKFTC4–CRISPR/Cas9 engineering was used in mouse embryonic stem cells to insert an in-frame GFP tag with the motor neuron-specific transcription factor HB9. These cells are differentiated into motor neurons. The resulting motor neuron nuclei are labeled with the GFP reporter (green) and counterstained with antibodies against the neuronal marker Tuj1 (red).
RM2JKFT67–3D X-ray crystallographic image showing broadly neutralizing antibody B12 (green ribbon) in contact with a critical target (yellow) for vaccine developers on HIV-1 gp120 (red).
RM2JKFTDK–Scanning electron micrograph of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (yellow) and a dead human white blood cell (colored red.)
RM2JKFTCY–Meningeal macrophages (shown in white, red, and blue) are always alert to potential threats to brain tissue.
RM2JKFTD4–-Galactosidase resolution electron density map.
RM2JKFTDF–This image shows a cutaneous papilloma generated in a 'two stage' mouse model of skin cancer formation. These papilloma lesions have a high risk of developing into squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer. The Anti-Keratin 5 protein (red) identifies the keratinocytes within the lesion. Cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). The image shows that the transcription factor DLX3 (green) is expressed by the most keratinized and differentiated cells, also called
RM2JKFTB2–Researchers at the NIH's National Eye Institute (NEI) have found that energy-producing organelles in the eye's photoreceptor cells, called mitochondria, function like microlenses that help channel light to the outer segments of these cells. where it is converted into nerve signals. The finding in ground squirrels provides a more accurate picture of the optical properties of the retina and could help detect eye disease earlier. The findings, published today in Science Advances, also shed light on the evolution of vision.
RM2JKFTAT–The supplied chromosomes are protected by specific DNA sequences called telomeres, shown here in red. This image shows that some chromosomes lack telomeres, which can lead to abnormal cell division and cancer.
RM2JKFTP1–Zika virus particles (red) shown in African green monkey kidney cells.
RM2JKFT9D–This image is the result of a research project aimed at visualizing which regions of the adult Drosophila brain derive from each neural stem cell.
RM2JKFTJ7–Scanning electron micrograph of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis.
RM2JKFTAN–The p97 protein is trapped in an inactive state by a new inhibitor (red) and the molecule cannot continue its normal reaction cycle. Image created using cryo-electron microscopy.
RM2JKFTJC–A new study published in Neuron offers clues as to why autism spectrum disorders are more common in boys than girls. National Institutes of Health scientists have found that a single amino acid change in the NLGN4 gene, which has been linked to autism symptoms, can cause this difference in some cases. The study was conducted at the NIH's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
RM2JKFTP4–Just 22 hours after fertilization, this zebrafish embryo is already taking shape. By 36 hours, all major organs will have started to form. The rapid growth of zebrafish and
RM2JKFTB9–Immunofluorescence image of actin bundles in muscle precursor cells called myoblasts. Actin is labeled with fluorescently labeled phalloidin, which is a toxin from the fungus Amanita phalloides. Nuclei are shown in blue.
RM2JKFTPW–The zebrafish is an excellent model for studying the development and function of blood and lymphatic vessels. Zebrafish research has even led to treatments for lymphatic disorders in humans. This image, taken using a powerful microscope that uses lasers to illuminate the fish, shows blood vessels (magenta) and lymphatic vessels (green) in the eye and head of an anesthetized transgenic zebrafish of 6 weeks.
RM2JKFTJ4–Neural circuits in the mouse retina. Cone photoreceptors (red) allow color vision bipolar neurons (magenta) to relay information further down the circuit and a subtype of bipolar neuron (green) helps process signals detected by other photoreceptors in the penumbra.
RM2JKFTD0–A newborn mouse cochlea (purple) grown in cell culture and neurons (orange) that send information from the cochlea to the brain. The cochlea is the hearing organ of the inner ear. Researchers use these miniature structures to learn how individual cell types work and to test potential therapies for hearing loss.
RM2JKFTBA–In mice with a particular ALS-causing mutation, an overactive enzyme called Cdk5 normally kills neurons in the spinal cord (pictured above). New research from IRP has identified a promising way to tune into Cdk5 to prevent these toxic effects.
RM2JKFTPY–The lubber grasshopper, found throughout the southern United States, is frequently used in biology classes to teach students about the respiratory system of insects. Unlike mammals, which have red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body, insects have breathing tubes that carry air through their exoskeleton directly to where it and the
RM2JKFTJD–NIH researchers have discovered that our brains can store memories in neural trigger patterns that are replayed fractions of a second before remembering.
RM2JKFTCC–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a natural killer cell from a human donor.
RM2JKFTP6–Zebrafish scales can provide insight into the importance of lymphatic vessels for tissue growth and development. This photo of an anesthetized adult zebrafish was taken using a powerful microscope that uses lasers to illuminate the fish. The image shows fish scales with lymphatic vessels in green and scale structures in blue and magenta.
RM2JKFTDC–Scanning electron micrograph of Lassa virus budding on a Vero cell.
RM2JKFTC0–In plants, as in animals, stem cells can develop into a variety of different cell types. The stem cells at the growing end of this Arabidopsis plant will soon grow into flowers. Arabidopsis is often studied by cellular and molecular biologists because it grows rapidly (its full life cycle is only 6 weeks), produces many seeds, and has an easily manipulated genome.
RM2JKFTB1–Cells stick together to form membranes that regulate the flow of nutrients in and out of the body. These kidney cells express proteins that function in cell-cell adhesion labeled with a green or red fluorescent protein. These proteins are essential for maintaining the shape of the organs inside our body.
RM2JKFTC1–This image represents an anti-infective cell called a neutrophil. In this artist's rendering, the cell's DNA is altered to help restore its ability to fight off bacterial invaders.
RM2JKFTM2–Close-up of neurons in a mouse with Niemann-Pick type C1 neurodegenerative disease. A major way to assess the impact of a therapeutic potential on the central nervous system is to assess cerebellar pathology in mice.
RM2JKFTKG–Human brain organoids are small balls of human brain cells ranging in size from a poppy seed to a pea. Their organization, structure and electrical signaling are similar to brain tissue. Because these brain organoids can survive in a controlled environment for months, diseases of the nervous system can be studied over time. Brain organoids have been used as models to study Zika virus infection, Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome.
RM2JKFTCP–This image shows distinct neural connections in a cross section of a mouse's hippocampus, a region of the brain involved in remembering facts and events. The large crescent-shaped area in green is the CA1 hippocampal area. Its highly specialized neurons, called location cells, serve as the brain's GPS system for tracking location. In red, the CA2 hippocampal area. It is important for former memories of social interactions.
RM2JKFT63–A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. Bacteriophage T4 infects E.coli bacteria. T4 invasion begins by touching the bacterial cell wall and injecting viral DNA through its tube-like queue (purple) into the cell. A 'DNA packaging machine' (middle and right panels) between the 'head' bacteriophage' and 'queue' (green, yellow, blue tips) confirmed double-stranded DNA (middle panel, red) at hand.
RM2JKFTNT–The electron microscope image provides a close-up view of a woven 3D scaffold on which stem cells have been cultured.
RM2JKFTB4–In this image, the community of cells lining the airways of a mouse is magnified more than 10,000 times. This collection of cells, known as the mucociliary escalator, is also found in humans. It's our first line of defense against inhaled bacteria, allergens, pollutants and debris. System malfunctions can cause or worsen lung infections and conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cells shown in gray secrete mucus, which traps inhaled particles. The colored cells remove the mucus layer from the lungs.
RM2JKFTAW–These developing mouse nerve cells have a nucleus (yellow) surrounded by a cell body, with long extensions called axons and thin branching structures called dendrites. Electrical signals travel from the axon of one cell to the dendrites of another.
RM2JKFTNC–After multiplying inside a host cell, the chain-like Ebola virus emerges to infect more cells. Ebola is a rare, often fatal disease that occurs mainly in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa.
RM2JKFTDW–This image captures the many layers of nerve cells in the retina. The top (green) layer is made up of cells called photoreceptors that convert light into electrical signals to send to the brain. The two most well-known types of photoreceptor cells are rod-shaped and cone-shaped. Rods help us see in low light conditions, but can and
RM2JKFTAR–It is a fibroblast, a connective tissue cell that plays an important role in wound healing. Normal fibroblasts have smooth edges. On the other hand, this bristly cell lacks a protein necessary for the proper construction of the cell and the skeleton.
RM2JKFT96–This image shows a normal fibroblast, a cell type common in connective tissue and frequently examined in research laboratories. Unlike the spiky version, this cell has a healthy skeleton composed of actin (red) and microtubules (green). Actin fibers contain like muscles to create tension and microtubules contain like bones to resist compression.
RM2JKFTPP–Dorsal view of the brain of a 10-day-old double transgenic zebrafish (MRC1a:eGFP Kdrl:mcherry). Blood vessels are shown in magenta and a new population of perivascular endothelial cells is shown in green.
RM2JKFTCN–A newborn mouse cochlea (the auditory organ of the inner ear). Sensory hair cells are comprised along the cochlea. Bundles of stereocilia (green arcs), hair-like projections that rest on top of the hair cell, cause the hair cell to respond to sound. Supporting cells (blue and red) surround the hair cells.
RM2JKFT68–Scanning electron micrograph of Borrelia hermsii, the causative agent of relapsing fever, interacting with red blood cells.
RM2JKFT75–The image shows a cell culture of conditionally reprogrammed human breast cancer cells. The fluorescent red color represents MHC-I and the nuclei are shown in blue.
RM2JKFTMK–In situ hybridization shows that p21 is expressed in the primary enamel node of the wild-type tooth germ at E14.5.
RM2JKFTNA–Fire-like electron micrograph of herpes simplex virus.
RM2JKFT5M–Scientists have developed new image processing techniques for microscopes that can reduce post-processing time by up to several thousand times. The researchers come from the National Institutes of Health with collaborators from the University of Chicago and Zhejiang University, China.
RM2JKFT6X–During normal bone development and fracture healing, cartilage turns into bone. Osteoclasts, a type of specialized cell, eat cartilage, provide passage for blood vessels, marrow and other bone cells. In this image of cartilage (purple and white) from a young mouse femur, osteoclasts (red) surround a blood vessel filled with red blood cells (yellow). Unlike normal osteoclasts, the cells present here have only one nucleus due to the absence of a gene involved in osteoclast development.
RM2JKFTMY–Electron micrograph of red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for malaria in humans. During its development, the parasite forms projections called and quot
RM2JKFTEN–The round, pointed objects in the center of the image are MERS coronavirus particles.
RM2JKFTJP–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a cell heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (orange/red), isolated from a patient sample. Image requested from the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.
RM2JKFTE9–This image shows the expression of keratin 5 (red) and keratin 1 (green) in skin tumors. Keratins are fibrous structural proteins found in epithelial structures, such as skin, hair, and nails. They form filaments that give strength and tenacity to structures. Keratins are often used to aid in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, a form of skin cancer.
RM2JKFTBE–The Human Microbiome Project, which was launched by the NIH in 2007, provided the first insight into the microbial life of healthy humans and explores possible relationships between particular human diseases and the microbiome. (Clockwise from top left): Streptococcus (Credit: Tom Schmidt) Mixed species microbial biofilm, from the human body (Credit: A. Earl, Broad Institute/MIT) Bacillus (Credit : Tom Schmidt) Malassezia lopophilis (Credit: JH Carr, CDC).
RM2JKFTN3–In this image, the researchers used a newly developed polarized light microscope to plot the spatial orientation of neurons in a thin section of the mouse midbrain. Neurons that stretch horizontally displayed in green, while those oriented at a 45 degree angle are pinkish red and those at 225 degrees are purplish blue. These colors do not involve staining or labeling the cells with fluorescent markers: the colors are emitted strictly from light interacting with the physical orientation of each neuron.
RM2JKFTJA–Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a cell (blue) heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (red), isolated from a patient sample. Image requested from the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.
RM2JKFTB5–Five different hearing organs of the fruit fly are arranged to form a flower in this image. A protein, NompA (red), attaches auditory units to the exoskeleton. Human genes and hearing organs are similar to those of fruit flies. This allows researchers to use fruit flies to identify new genes and gene regulators involved in hearing and deafness in humans.
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