The grafting of Aristotelian theory onto the Christian version of the cosmos, engraving from Peter Apian's Cosmographicus liber (1524). Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 - April 21, 1552) was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy a

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The grafting of Aristotelian theory onto the Christian version of the cosmos, engraving from Peter Apian's Cosmographicus Stock Photo
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The grafting of Aristotelian theory onto the Christian version of the cosmos, engraving from Peter Apian's Cosmographicus liber (1524). Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 - April 21, 1552) was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy a
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The grafting of Aristotelian theory onto the Christian version of the cosmos, engraving from Peter Apian's Cosmographicus liber (1524). Petrus Apianus (April 16, 1495 - April 21, 1552) was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. In 1524 he produced his Cosmographicus liber, a respected work on astronomy and navigation that was to see at least 30 reprints in 14 languages. In 1527 he published a variation of Pascal's triangle, and in 1534 a table of sines. In 1531, he observed a comet and discovered that a comet's tail always point away from the sun. In 1540, he printed the Astronomicum Caesareum, dedicated to Charles V who appointed him his court mathematician. He designed sundials, published manuals for astronomical instruments and crafted volvelles (Apian wheels), measuring instruments useful for calculating time and distance for astronomical and astrological applications. He died in 1552 at the age of 57. Aristotle (384-322 BC) developed an early model of the cosmos based on the concept of uniform circular motion. To account for the motions of the stars, sun, moon, and the five known planets, his model used 56 spherical shells each centered on the earth. These shells were divided into two regions: the realm of change near the earth and the eternally unchanging heavens. The realm of change consisted of spheres of each of the four classical elements: earth, water, air, and fire. The heavens were made of an unchangeable, transparent material called the ether. Due to the influence of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas Aristotle's cosmology became an integral part of the Catholic faith. In the 13th century his primum mobile was identified with god himself thus losing its astronomical value in favor of moral and religious reasoning. The cosmos were peopled with celestial figures who interceded between man and god.