Schematic of platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles (PNPs) for the treatment
of immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). (A) To fabricate PNPs, the plasma membrane from fresh platelets is derived and then coated onto poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymeric nanoparticle cores, transferring the surface antigenic material from the original cells onto the outside of the nanoparticles. (B) Without treatment, ITP is characterized by the binding of pathological autoantibodies to healthy platelets, resulting in their clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. (C) When PNPs are administered, they act as decoys that bind to the pathological autoantibodies, neutralizing them from circulation and enabling the survival of healthy platelets. Figure courtesy of Liangfang Zhang, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego.