RM2AWGRCJ–Ontario High School History of England .
RM2AWFRYB–Ontario High School History of England . Choir, Ely.—Decorated Style, ABOUT 1325 Note the complex tracery in the windows.. Dkcorated Window. Read-ing, ABOUT 1306 lines cross each other at right angles wherever possible;the heads of the arches are almost square. Vaulted stone 177
RM2AWFTBM–Ontario High School History of England . 176 HISTORY OF ENGLAND The Perpendicular Gothic.—Fashion, however, changes inarchitecture, as in all else. By the time of Richard II, the Perpendicular stylehad supplanted theDecorated, and thisstyle lasted to the timeof Henry VII. The styleis peculiar to Englandand is in sharp contrastwith the earlier Gothic.A beautiful complexity oflines in the tracery ofthe window-openings isno longer sought. Inlarge windows, plannedto admit floods of light,.
RM2AJ2MN3–Ontario Public School History of England : Authorized by the Minister of Education for Ontario for Use in Forms IV and V of the Public Schools . olonists refused to buy it.In Charleston it was storedin damp cellars and soonspoiled. In Boston somemen disguised themselves asIndians and dropped it over-board. This high-handedaction gave George, who hadstrongly supported his mini-sters in the imposition of thetaxes, the very opportuYiityfor which he had been look-ing. Very stringent laws were passed interfering withthe liberty of the people, and General Gage was appointedgovernor of Massachusetts
RM2AWF3T1–Ontario High School History of England . times as numerous as those of the royal navy, would takepart in the fight when the time came. No doubt the Englishships were smaller than the ships of Spain. These, withtheir high castles in bow and stern, and their broad bows,looked formidable. The English, however, had the advantageof more powerful cannon with which they could batter the 232 HISTORY OF ENGLAND great Spanish ships, while keeping out of range them-selves. Their ships were also swifter, and they could beatbetter to windward, and turn more readily than their foes. English sailors too were
RM2AWFRHC–Ontario High School History of England . were very costly tobuild and maintain. They were indeed fortresses, with aconsiderable garrison, and most of them passed into thehands of the king, or into those of a few nobles who had hislicense. The Wars of the Roses, which tended to revivethe power of the nobles, led some of them to fortify theirresidences. Artillery was, however^ making the castle oflittle use in war, and, at the close of the Middle Ages, thericher nobles lived in sumptuous palaces, built withoutmuch thought of military defence. The manor house.—The village squire, or lord of the m
RM2AWHF16–Ontario High School History of England . ionaltraveller came to Britain it was in much the same spirit ofadventure that the Briton himself now shows when he seeksthe wilds of Africa.Yet the Britons hadalready something likecivilization. Visitorsto the island were sur-prised at the largepopulation, the manyvillages, the herds ofcattle, and the exten-sive cultivation ofgrain. In the southand west were tin and lead mines. The Britons madecoarse cloth, and delighted to array themselves in its flamingcolours. The men wore long hair and shaved their faces,with the exception of the upper lip. Hospita
RM2AWFX5G–Ontario High School History of England . leges,were selfish and tyrannical. But,since monopoly checked competi-tion, they had little temptation todo bad work, and usually gave goodmeasure and good quality. Likemodern benefit and insurance soci-eties, they took care of their mem-bers, and they also gave money toaid education. To this day, someof the guilds survive in London,and use their abundant revenuesfor the public benefit. Though declining, at the close of the Middle Ages, they were stillstrong, and guarded their privileges jealously. It was difficultfor an outsider to join even the guilds
RM2AWE5E2–Ontario High School History of England . her queen, with William asher consort. William declined, however, to be gentlemanusher to his wife, and, in the end, William and Mary weredeclared king and queen, the survivor to rule alone, andthe executive power to rest with William while he lived. The Bill of Rights, 1689.—The Whigs insisted that Par-liament should draw up a statement of the rights of thenation which James had violated, and William and Maryaccepted this Declaration of Rights. Then the crown wasoffered to them, and the revolution was complete. Whena regular Parliament was sum-moned in
RM2AWG4MB–Ontario High School History of England . open field, andafter a decisive bat-tle the levies of eachside were quicklydisbanded, and warended for the time.The towns had littleshare in the struggle,and seemed to carelittle for either causeso long as they wereleft free to carry onprofitable trade.They usually openedtheir gates cheerfullyto the side victoriousfor the time. Duringthe period, wealthincreased rapidly, afact which shows that trade was not greatly interrupted.There is also evidence that many costly churches werebuilt and that, while the barons and their armed retainerswere dying on the
RM2AWEGXC–Ontario High School History of England . charge of thenorth of England, and there hesoon had the Court of StarChamber busy with the disciplineof such of the northern gentryas opposed the kings policy.Wcntworths belief was that theCommons, in which he had sat,should have no control of thegovernment. It was a many-headed body, often divided inopinion. He found the best security in the undividedauthority of a strong king. On this point he and Laudwere at one. When they wrote to each other they spokeof their attitude as Thorough, meaning by this thor-ough devotion to the kings interests. Thorough
RM2AWHB39–Ontario High School History of England . aftsmen from the continent, for the rudeEnglish were still too unskilled to do such tasks. Bedewrote many books. His Ecclesiastical History of the EngHshNation, full of stories exquisitely told, is the great work BRITAIN BEFORE THE CONQUEST 25 from which we derive most of our knowledge of the early-English. Bede translated part of the Bible into the Englishof the Angles, his people; and itis through work such as his thatthe tongue we speak to-day isknown as English rather thanby the name of one of the othertribes, Saxons, or Jutes. The sixhundred monks