From APP to Beta-Amyloid Plaque

From APP to Beta-Amyloid Plaque Stock Photo

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Science History Images / Alamy Stock Photo

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3303 x 4050 px | 28 x 34.3 cm | 11 x 13.5 inches | 300dpi


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Beta-amyloid plaques are found in the brains of Alzheimer patients. The beta-amyloid peptide chains which are suspected to contribute to the disease, result from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cleaved by beta secretase and gamma secretase to yield amyloid beta. Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. It is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioral issues. As a person's condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the average life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years. About 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved.