Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany. The city is a centre of major scientific institutions and holds the title 'City of Science'. The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) and the GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research are located in Darmstadt as is the world's oldest pharmaceutical Company, Merck. Darmstadt was an important centre for the German Art Nouveau Movement, Jugendstil. Jugendstil period buildings include the Mathildenhöhe with its wedding tower (Hochzeitsturm) by Joseph Maria Olbrich, the Russian Chapel and many private homes. The Luisenplatz is the central square of the city and the Langer Lui (Long Ludwig) stands in the centre of the square, This 33 meter column commemorates Ludwig 1, the first Grand Duke of Hesse.