copyist written copies ancient times scrivener calligrapher calligraphi manuscript copyists hand write instrumental parts neatly

- Image ID: C76FTX
copyist written copies ancient times scrivener calligrapher calligraphi manuscript copyists hand write instrumental parts neatly
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Image ID: C76FTX
A copyist is a person who makes written copies. In ancient times, a scrivener was also called a calligraphus (pl. calligraphi). The term's modern use is almost entirely confined to music copyists, who are employed by the music industry to produce neat copies from a composer or arranger's manuscript. Until the 1990s, most copyists worked by hand to write out scores and individual instrumental parts neatly, using a calligraphy pen, manuscript paper, and often a ruler. In the 1990s, copyists began using scorewriters - computer programs which are the music notation equivalent of a word processor. (Such programs include Finale , Sibelius or GNU LilyPond). Both handwritten and computer-based copying require a significant understanding of musical notation, music theory, the musical styles and conventions of different styles of music (e.g., regarding appropriate ornamentation), and strong attention to detail and past conventions. Ludwig van Beethoven had a contentious relationship with his copyists, who often made mistakes that have remained uncorrected until the advent of Urtext editions; some musicologists have devoted a lot of effort to identifying Beethoven's copyists.