Apothecary jar labelled: "Ecussons Epispastiques et Antimorhoidal Patry Apothicaire Long-Jumeau, 1767. An apothecary jar is usually a wide-mouthed covered and ornamented jar for drugs or herbs. The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century. Before then, pharmacy evolved from antiquity as part of medicine. In Baghdad the first pharmacies, or drug stores, were established in 754, under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age. By the 9th century, these pharmacies were state-regulated. The advances made in the Middle East in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval Islam substantially to develop pharmacology. Al-Biruni (973-1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah (The Book of Drugs), where he gave detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, mode of action and their indications (Canon of Medicine).