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. Scientific American Volume 86 Number 14 (April 1902) . feet above the roof of the tunnelheading. Above the rocklies a mass of what Va.iengineers call earth, thatis to say, a loose materialconsisting of gravel, sand,clay, etc., of a consistencywhich can be easily exca-vated by pick and shovel,and which has no naturalcohesion to hold it inplace. On the Wednesday pre-ceding the day on whichthe trouble occurred, itwas noticed that therewere indications of settle-ment of the rock, and asection of rock measuringabout 3x6 feet fellthrough into the tunnel.An examination of thecavity revealed a strat

. Scientific American Volume 86 Number 14 (April 1902) . feet above the roof of the tunnelheading. Above the rocklies a mass of what Va.iengineers call earth, thatis to say, a loose materialconsisting of gravel, sand,clay, etc., of a consistencywhich can be easily exca-vated by pick and shovel,and which has no naturalcohesion to hold it inplace. On the Wednesday pre-ceding the day on whichthe trouble occurred, itwas noticed that therewere indications of settle-ment of the rock, and asection of rock measuringabout 3x6 feet fellthrough into the tunnel.An examination of thecavity revealed a strat Stock Photo
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. Scientific American Volume 86 Number 14 (April 1902) . feet above the roof of the tunnelheading. Above the rocklies a mass of what Va.iengineers call earth, thatis to say, a loose materialconsisting of gravel, sand,clay, etc., of a consistencywhich can be easily exca-vated by pick and shovel,and which has no naturalcohesion to hold it inplace. On the Wednesday pre-ceding the day on whichthe trouble occurred, itwas noticed that therewere indications of settle-ment of the rock, and asection of rock measuringabout 3x6 feet fellthrough into the tunnel.An examination of thecavity revealed a stratumof decomposed rock, about4 feet in thickness, whichextended diagonally at anangle of about 45 degs. eral feet in width slid into the tunnel. Now, theeffect of this section of rock falling in, was,roughly speaking, as though the valve at the bot-tom of a hopper had been opened, allowing the loosecontents above to flow down through the opening thusformed. The loose gravel, sand, earth, etc., pouredinto the tunnel, forming above the rock layer a crater-. LAUNCH OF THE NSW BERMUDA DBYDOCK, THE LARGEST OF ITS KINO YET CONSTRUCTED THE NEW BERMUDA FLOATING BOCK. BY H. J. SHEPSTONB. The new floating dock recently launched on theTyne, England, from the works of Messrs. C. S. Swan& Hunter, for the use of the British fleet at Bermuda,claims the distinction of being the longest and heav-iest dock so far constructed. It has a length over all of 545 feet, while the hullweight of the structure, bywhich is meant the quan-tity of steel plates, Darsand shapes, rivets, bolts,etc., and all other materialessentially necessary to adock, but not includingmachinery, timber or anyother fitting!;., is just over6,500 tons. The great Al-giers dock at New Orleanscertainly runs it veryclose, having a length of525 feet and a hull weightof 5,850 tons. The dock is to replacethe famous old struc-ture at Bermuda whichwas towed across the At-lantic in 1869, and hasnow become obsolete, notthrough age, but throug

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