Photo of the painting "The Surgeon" by Jan Sanders van Hemessen. Such operations were referred to as "stone cutting", because according to a superstition stupidity and idiocy could be removed from a patient's head in the form of a stone. The quack conjured up a stone from the cut on the brain with a trick. Therefore the "stone cutting" was considered a symbol of human stupidity.
Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo / Alamy Stock Photo
Image ID: TA2B5A