Ontario High School History of England . open field, andafter a decisive bat-tle the levies of eachside were quicklydisbanded, and warended for the time.The towns had littleshare in the struggle,and seemed to carelittle for either causeso long as they wereleft free to carry onprofitable trade.They usually openedtheir gates cheerfullyto the side victoriousfor the time. Duringthe period, wealthincreased rapidly, afact which shows that trade was not greatly interrupted.There is also evidence that many costly churches werebuilt and that, while the barons and their armed retainerswere dying on the

Ontario High School History of England . open field, andafter a decisive bat-tle the levies of eachside were quicklydisbanded, and warended for the time.The towns had littleshare in the struggle,and seemed to carelittle for either causeso long as they wereleft free to carry onprofitable trade.They usually openedtheir gates cheerfullyto the side victoriousfor the time. Duringthe period, wealthincreased rapidly, afact which shows that trade was not greatly interrupted.There is also evidence that many costly churches werebuilt and that, while the barons and their armed retainerswere dying on the Stock Photo
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The Reading Room / Alamy Stock Photo

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1378 x 1813 px | 23.3 x 30.7 cm | 9.2 x 12.1 inches | 150dpi

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Ontario High School History of England . open field, andafter a decisive bat-tle the levies of eachside were quicklydisbanded, and warended for the time.The towns had littleshare in the struggle,and seemed to carelittle for either causeso long as they wereleft free to carry onprofitable trade.They usually openedtheir gates cheerfullyto the side victoriousfor the time. Duringthe period, wealthincreased rapidly, afact which shows that trade was not greatly interrupted.There is also evidence that many costly churches werebuilt and that, while the barons and their armed retainerswere dying on the field or losing their heads upon theblock, the working classes lived in peace and comparativecomfort. Battle of Wakefield, 1460; Towton, 1461.—The Yorkistsmet with a crushing blow, when York fell in a great battleat Wakefield, in 1460. In mockery of his claims, Margaretcrowned his head with paper and put it over the gates ofYork. But the English did not like the foreign queen,followed, as she was, by a motley array of hired followers,. 154 HISTORY OF ENGLAND who pillaged the country mercilessly. The nation favouredYorks son Edward, who, though only nineteen, proved aborn leader. He secured London, and,on March 4th, 1461,hedid what York had feared to do; he declared himself lawfulking as Edward IV. England had nowtwo kings, and loyalty to one was treasonto the other, with all the dreadful penaltiesthat treason involved (p. 108). A fewweeks later, Edward met Margarets hostat Towton, near York, and won a greatvictor}^ Forty thousand dead strewedthat bloody field. Not long afterwardsKing Henry fell into Edwards hands, Mar-garet fled to France, and Edward nowseemed secure on the throne. Kins Edward IV, 1461, and Warwickthe King-malcer.—At the young Edwardsside, during the struggle, was one whomay well have thought himself the realorganizer of victory. Richard Neville,Earl of Warwick, was the richest and thegreatest of the English barons. He livedin state equal to that of the kin

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