. North American trees : being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies . Trees. 6o The Spruces so, light red. The cones, which are abundantly produced, are elliptical, 3 to 7 cm. long, light green with a reddish tinge when young, light brown and shining when ripe, falling off soon after the seeds have dropped out; their scales are subrhomboid, thin and firm, somewhat concave, usually broadest near the middle and irregularly toothed at the apex; the bracts are truncate or pointed, 4 to 6 mm. long. See

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. North American trees : being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies . Trees. 6o The Spruces so, light red. The cones, which are abundantly produced, are elliptical, 3 to 7 cm. long, light green with a reddish tinge when young, light brown and shining when ripe, falling off soon after the seeds have dropped out; their scales are subrhomboid, thin and firm, somewhat concave, usually broadest near the middle and irregularly toothed at the apex; the bracts are truncate or pointed, 4 to 6 mm. long. Seed blunt and thickened at the base, about 3 mm. long, its wing wedge-shaped, twice as long as the seed, oblique and Ught brown. The wood is soft, rather weak, close-grained, pale yellowish brown; its specific gravity is about 0.34. It takes a fine polish and is used in general carpentry, for fuel, and charcoal. The bark is rich in tannin and is used to some ejrtent in tan- ning leather. As an ornamental, this tree is very desirable and stands the climate of the northeastern States very well, but is a very slow grower. It is also called White spruce, Moimtain spruce, Arizona spruce, Balsam, and White pine. 6. BLUE SPRUCE —Piceaptmgens Engelmann Picea Parry ana (Andre) Sargent. Ahies Menziesii Parry ana Andre Also called Colorado blue spruce, Parry's spruce, Prickly spruce, White spruce. Silver spruce, and locally Spruce or Balsam, this occurs in New Mexico, Colorado, eastern Utah and Wyoming, at elevations of from 1800 to 3000 meters; it attains a maximum height of 45 me- ters with a trunk diameter of 9 dm. The branches are stout, stiff, horizontal, rather far apart and in whorls, gradu- ally shorter toward the top, forming a loose, symmetri- cal cone-shaped tree. The branchlets are stiff, some- what erect with age, the trees often becoming irregular in outline by the elongation of some of the upper branches and the dying off of the lower ones. The trunk also is frequently fork

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