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. Manual of physico-chemical measurements. ng tube and large absorber are used ; forcarbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and similar gases the arrangement isreversed. The solubility of the first class is in round numbers 002,of the second class approximately IO. Preparation of Gas-free Liquids.—This is an operation notquite easy to accomplish. The boiling-flask /i (Fig. 123) is connectedby a thick-walled rubber tube and screw clip with a water-pumpthrough a condenser, and is boiled out under diminished pressure untilthe liquid when shaken gives the hammering characteristic of allliquids free from ga

. Manual of physico-chemical measurements. ng tube and large absorber are used ; forcarbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and similar gases the arrangement isreversed. The solubility of the first class is in round numbers 002,of the second class approximately IO. Preparation of Gas-free Liquids.—This is an operation notquite easy to accomplish. The boiling-flask /i (Fig. 123) is connectedby a thick-walled rubber tube and screw clip with a water-pumpthrough a condenser, and is boiled out under diminished pressure untilthe liquid when shaken gives the hammering characteristic of allliquids free from ga Stock Photo
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. Manual of physico-chemical measurements. ng tube and large absorber are used ; forcarbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and similar gases the arrangement isreversed. The solubility of the first class is in round numbers 002,of the second class approximately IO. Preparation of Gas-free Liquids.—This is an operation notquite easy to accomplish. The boiling-flask /i (Fig. 123) is connectedby a thick-walled rubber tube and screw clip with a water-pumpthrough a condenser, and is boiled out under diminished pressure untilthe liquid when shaken gives the hammering characteristic of allliquids free from gas. The clip is then screwed tight, the condenserremoved, and the absorber brought into its place. After this ispumped out as well as possible, the clip is opened, and the liquiddriven into the absorber either by its own pressure or by slightlywarming the fiask, after which the absorber is closed. Chemical Methods.—In all cases where simple and exactanalytical methods are applicable, the dissolved gases may be estimated SOLUBILITY 175-. by saturating the solution and then determining the amount in a measured portion. This may be done with carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, sulphuretted hydrogen, and also with oxygen. If the liquid has to be saturated at a pressure less than that of the atmosphere, it is saturated with a mixture of gases (either by shaking or letting the gas bubble through it), in which the partial pressure of the gas in question may be made as small as we please. It is, however, not easy to get large quantities of the mixture of gases to retain a uniform ±iu. i^o. composition, as contact with the water which must be employed readily causes variations in the proportions present. Liquids in Liquids.—In the case of limited solubility, twoliquids when shaken together always form two solutions—one of theliquid A in B, the other oi B A. These solutions have at a giventemperature a composition independent of the ratio of the two liquids,so long as each of the tw

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