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History of the United States from the earliest discovery of America to the present time . sdeath. The rebellion was now easily subdued,but it had soured and hardened old Gov-ernor Berkeleys spirit. Twenty-three inall were executed for participation in themovement. Charles II. remarked: Thatold fool has hanged more men in thatnaked country than I for the murder ofmy father. After Bacons Rebellion the colonialannals show but a dull succession of royalgovernors, with few events specially inter-esting. Under the governorship of LordHoward of Effingham, which began in 1684,great excitement prevailed in Virginia lestKing James II. should subvert the EnglishChurch there and make Catholicism dom-inant, which indeed might possibly haveoccurred but for Jamess abdication in 1688. Under Governor Nicholson, from 1690,the capital was removed from Jamestown to i69o] MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, CAROLINA 283 Williamsburg, and the College of Williamand Mary founded, its charter dating from1693. The Attorney-General, Seymour,opposed this project on the ground thatthe money was needed for better pur-. George Monk, Duke of Albemarle. poses than educating clergymen. Rev.Dr. Blair, agent and advocate of the en-dowment, pleading: The people havesouls to be saved, Seymour retorted: Damn your souls, make tobacco. ButBlair persisted and succeeded, himself be-coming first president of the college. The 284 ENGLISH AMERICA L1710 initial commencement exercises took placein 1700. Governor Spotswood, who came in 1710,did much for Virginia. He built the firstiron furnaces in America, introduced wine-culture, for which he imported skilled Ger-mans, and greatly interested himself in thecivilization of the Indians. He was theearliest to explore the Shenandoah Valley.It was also by his energy that the famouspirate Blackbeard was captured and ex-ecuted. Lieutenant Maynard, sent withtwo ships to hunt him, attacked and boardedthe pirate vessel in Pamlico Sound, 1718.A tough fight at close quarters ensued.Blackbear