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. History of Rome and of the Roman people, from its origin to the Invasion of the Barbarians;. ring the cnliyae which gave him his surname. Seated on the ground, at the leftof Livia, is the despairing figure of Armenia, lately conquered. In the lower portion of thecameo, German and Oriental captives symbolize the victories of Germanicus and Drusus.Cf. Chabouillet, Calal. (/en. etc.. No. 188, pp. 28-31. 1 This beautiful statue, for a long time at Velletri, the nati\-e place of Augustus, is now inthe Vatican (Hall of the Pluses, No. 504). 2 Varius composed a tragedy, Thijc.stef, which Quintilian has the bad taste to comparewith the finest works of Sophocles and Euripides, but which was not played in public, asOvids Medea never was (viii. .3, 17, and ix. 1, 98). The Roman tragedies were suited only forprivate representations, being in large measure incomprehensible to an audience gathered fromthe four quarters of the globe, and i-ppresenting every variety of beliefs and manners. To thepoets mentioned in the text we may add Ponticus, author of an epic on the Theban war, VOL. IV. 20. UR.4NIA, OR ASTRONOMY.^ 306 AUGUSTUS, OR THE FOUNDATION OF THE EMPIRE. verses were too learned to be natural ; Ovid, whose copiousness istoo often sterile ; Pliaedrus, a cold but limpid writer ; Manilius,who sang the stars, the confidants of destiny ; Varro, Hyginus,and Flaccus, representing erudition under the only forms known atRome, — the grammatical and liturgical ; Celsus, who, as an imitatorof the Greek master of medical science, may be called the RomanHippocrates ; Strabo, the great geographer ; and Vitruvius, the over-praised adviser of those unknown architects who changed the aspectof Rome. To these we add Trogus Pompeius the Gaul, and theRoman Greeks, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Diodorus Siculus, andNicolaos of Damascus, who wrote general histories for this universalEmpire ; and lastly, the sturdy republican Labeo and his rival AteiusCapito, founders of the two great schools of j