. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. HYMENOPTERA—BEES 151 the maxillae (la), the maxillary palps {/«), and the labial palps (/>/) are also turned downwards and backwards, and the mandibles (md) are brought together over the bases of these parts, at the same time overlapping the downwardly folded labrum (Fig. 64, 2, Ibr) and the retracted ligula {It). In the state of rest the mandibles alone retain their position unchanged, and are able, without alteration in the position of any other mouth-p

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Central Historic Books / Alamy Stock Photo
Image ID: PG28JE
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. HYMENOPTERA—BEES 151 the maxillae (la), the maxillary palps {/«), and the labial palps (/>/) are also turned downwards and backwards, and the mandibles (md) are brought together over the bases of these parts, at the same time overlapping the downwardly folded labrum (Fig. 64, 2, Ibr) and the retracted ligula {It). In the state of rest the mandibles alone retain their position unchanged, and are able, without alteration in the position of any other mouth-part, to open and close like the sides of a pair of tongs, i.e. they can bite. When they separate (Fig. 64, 2), the labrum (Jlr), ligula (//), the bases of the backwardly turned laciniae (Fig. 64, 2 3, la), the maxillary palps, and the labial palps become visible. Should the bee wish to cease biting and begin to suck nectar, it extends the laciniae, maxillary palps, and labial palps forwards, and spreads out the ligula 7ti ^ la.. Fig. 64. Mouth-parts oj Prosopis (after Herm. Mttller). (i) Head with mouth-parts completely apposed, seen from below. (2) Anterior parts of the same with the mandibles separated, and the labrum turned up. (2 A) Mouth-parts in the same position, more highly magni6ed. (3I Mouth-parts, after the elevation of the maxillae and the maxillary and labial palps, and with the ligula partly extended; magnified as in (2 «. (4) Ventral view of the front part of the head with mouth-parts fully extended; magnification as in (I) and (2). (4*) The completely extended mouth-parts ; magnified as m 2«and(3). Iby, labrum (upper lip); tiid, mandible (upper jaw); c, cardo (basal joint of the max.Ua or lower jaw ; St, stipes (stem of the maxilla); la, lacinia (blade of the maxilla); //«, palpus maxillar.s (max>llary palp); mt, mentum (chin); li, ligula (tongue); pa, paraglossae (accessoo' tongues); pi, palpus labiahs (lab.al palp); Q, eye. (Fig. 64, 3). It then rotat

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