. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4o8 ANGIOSPERMAE—MONOCOTYLEDONES to burst, when the mucilage exudes. This fixes the caudicles to the fore-part of the insect's head, so that the pollinia are drawn out of their recesses. In order to prevent tearing of the pollinia, which are firmly surrounded by the anther lobes, the original tip of the anther is situated on the rostellum. When the insect has come into contact with the epidermis of the latter, and the caudicles have become fastened to its he
RMPG46YK. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4o8 ANGIOSPERMAE—MONOCOTYLEDONES to burst, when the mucilage exudes. This fixes the caudicles to the fore-part of the insect's head, so that the pollinia are drawn out of their recesses. In order to prevent tearing of the pollinia, which are firmly surrounded by the anther lobes, the original tip of the anther is situated on the rostellum. When the insect has come into contact with the epidermis of the latter, and the caudicles have become fastened to its he
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4o8 ANGIOSPERMAE—MONOCOTYLEDONES to burst, when the mucilage exudes. This fixes the caudicles to the fore-part of the insect's head, so that the pollinia are drawn out of their recesses. In order to prevent tearing of the pollinia, which are firmly surrounded by the anther lobes, the original tip of the anther is situated on the rostellum. When the insect has come into contact with the epidermis of the latter, and the caudicles have become fastened to its he
RMRDDCT3. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4o8 ANGIOSPERMAE—MONOCOTYLEDONES to burst, when the mucilage exudes. This fixes the caudicles to the fore-part of the insect's head, so that the pollinia are drawn out of their recesses. In order to prevent tearing of the pollinia, which are firmly surrounded by the anther lobes, the original tip of the anther is situated on the rostellum. When the insect has come into contact with the epidermis of the latter, and the caudicles have become fastened to its he
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4 ANGIOSPERMAE—DICOTYLEDONES ' It is very interesting to observe how the various kinds of adaptation which are associated in the largest order of flowering plants, the Compositae, making their blossoms " the most successful of all flowers," are individually illustrated in the various genera of Campanulaceae. Like all of the latter the Compositae are markedly protandrous, and the two orders agree in the way in which the pollen is deposited on the ou
RMPG29HW. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4 ANGIOSPERMAE—DICOTYLEDONES ' It is very interesting to observe how the various kinds of adaptation which are associated in the largest order of flowering plants, the Compositae, making their blossoms " the most successful of all flowers," are individually illustrated in the various genera of Campanulaceae. Like all of the latter the Compositae are markedly protandrous, and the two orders agree in the way in which the pollen is deposited on the ou
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. GEITONOGAMY 41 III. Geitonogamy. Kerner, in his paper ' Die Schutzmittel der Bliite,' was the first to distinguish between Geitonogamy and Xenogamy. According to the few experiments of Darwin (' The Effects of Cross- and Self-fertilisation') and of Hildebrand (' Geschlechter- verteilung,' pp. 67, 68) it appears, as was to be expected, to be less advantageous for the plant than Xenogamy, but considerably more advantageous than Autogamy. Geitonogamy is brought
RMRDEYGA. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. GEITONOGAMY 41 III. Geitonogamy. Kerner, in his paper ' Die Schutzmittel der Bliite,' was the first to distinguish between Geitonogamy and Xenogamy. According to the few experiments of Darwin (' The Effects of Cross- and Self-fertilisation') and of Hildebrand (' Geschlechter- verteilung,' pp. 67, 68) it appears, as was to be expected, to be less advantageous for the plant than Xenogamy, but considerably more advantageous than Autogamy. Geitonogamy is brought
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. GEITONOGAMY 41 III. Geitonogamy. Kerner, in his paper ' Die Schutzmittel der Bliite,' was the first to distinguish between Geitonogamy and Xenogamy. According to the few experiments of Darwin (' The Effects of Cross- and Self-fertilisation') and of Hildebrand (' Geschlechter- verteilung,' pp. 67, 68) it appears, as was to be expected, to be less advantageous for the plant than Xenogamy, but considerably more advantageous than Autogamy. Geitonogamy is brought
RMPG29A1. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. GEITONOGAMY 41 III. Geitonogamy. Kerner, in his paper ' Die Schutzmittel der Bliite,' was the first to distinguish between Geitonogamy and Xenogamy. According to the few experiments of Darwin (' The Effects of Cross- and Self-fertilisation') and of Hildebrand (' Geschlechter- verteilung,' pp. 67, 68) it appears, as was to be expected, to be less advantageous for the plant than Xenogamy, but considerably more advantageous than Autogamy. Geitonogamy is brought
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4 ANGIOSPERMAE—DICOTYLEDONES ' It is very interesting to observe how the various kinds of adaptation which are associated in the largest order of flowering plants, the Compositae, making their blossoms " the most successful of all flowers," are individually illustrated in the various genera of Campanulaceae. Like all of the latter the Compositae are markedly protandrous, and the two orders agree in the way in which the pollen is deposited on the ou
RMRDEYW8. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 4 ANGIOSPERMAE—DICOTYLEDONES ' It is very interesting to observe how the various kinds of adaptation which are associated in the largest order of flowering plants, the Compositae, making their blossoms " the most successful of all flowers," are individually illustrated in the various genera of Campanulaceae. Like all of the latter the Compositae are markedly protandrous, and the two orders agree in the way in which the pollen is deposited on the ou
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 3t. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Mu?ller, Hermann, 1829-1883; Ainsworth Davis, J. R. (James Richard), 1861-1934. Oxford : Clarendon Press
RMPG29BA. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 3t. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Mu?ller, Hermann, 1829-1883; Ainsworth Davis, J. R. (James Richard), 1861-1934. Oxford : Clarendon Press
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 2o8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE INTRODUCTION cation), I was at first more than surprised to hear of these experiments, for they seemed entirely to overthrow a view which I had up to that time considered an established oecological fact. But on careful consideration of these experiments, I came to the conclusion that Plateau's inferences are not justified, and that another explanation is permissible. Let us take the experiment made with Digitalis purpurea. Plateau cut a
RMRDF866. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 2o8 SUPPLEMENT TO THE INTRODUCTION cation), I was at first more than surprised to hear of these experiments, for they seemed entirely to overthrow a view which I had up to that time considered an established oecological fact. But on careful consideration of these experiments, I came to the conclusion that Plateau's inferences are not justified, and that another explanation is permissible. Let us take the experiment made with Digitalis purpurea. Plateau cut a
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. ALIGHTING-PLACES IN FLOWERS 99 Sprengel described such forms as 'false nectar flowers.' The observations of Charles Darwin and Herm. Miiller have proved that the visitors bore into the juicy cellular tissue of our species of Orchis, and thus procure nourishment. Miiller has also shown that very probably some visitors of Cytisus Laburnum and Erythraea Centaurium bore for sap that is enclosed in the flowers, and it is not improbable that the more industrious b
RMPG296H. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. ALIGHTING-PLACES IN FLOWERS 99 Sprengel described such forms as 'false nectar flowers.' The observations of Charles Darwin and Herm. Miiller have proved that the visitors bore into the juicy cellular tissue of our species of Orchis, and thus procure nourishment. Miiller has also shown that very probably some visitors of Cytisus Laburnum and Erythraea Centaurium bore for sap that is enclosed in the flowers, and it is not improbable that the more industrious b
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 148 INTRODUCTION the hind-legs are thickly covered with hair from the tibia to the coxa. Even the metathorax is sometimes provided with two well-developed tufts of hair, under which considerable quantities of pollen can be accumulated (H. Miiller, 'Fertilisation,' p. 51). Compared with the species of Sphecodes, those of Halictus and Anthrena have an advantage in that their basal tarsal joints are considerably broader, and the tarsal brushes are consequently
RMRDF8C7. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. 148 INTRODUCTION the hind-legs are thickly covered with hair from the tibia to the coxa. Even the metathorax is sometimes provided with two well-developed tufts of hair, under which considerable quantities of pollen can be accumulated (H. Miiller, 'Fertilisation,' p. 51). Compared with the species of Sphecodes, those of Halictus and Anthrena have an advantage in that their basal tarsal joints are considerably broader, and the tarsal brushes are consequently
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann MuÌller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. HETEROSTYLY 47 Among dimorphous flowers four modes of fertilization are possible, two of them legitimate, and two illegitimate. Darwin has represented the possible legitimate and illegitimate unions by the accompanying diagram (Fig. 5). Eighteen modes of fertilization are possible among trimorphous flowers, and of these six are legitimate. If we indicate the longest organs { S and j) by /, the medium ones by m, and the shortest by s, and use a, b, and c to r
RMPG2995. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann MuÌller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. HETEROSTYLY 47 Among dimorphous flowers four modes of fertilization are possible, two of them legitimate, and two illegitimate. Darwin has represented the possible legitimate and illegitimate unions by the accompanying diagram (Fig. 5). Eighteen modes of fertilization are possible among trimorphous flowers, and of these six are legitimate. If we indicate the longest organs { S and j) by /, the medium ones by m, and the shortest by s, and use a, b, and c to r
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. ALIGHTING-PLACES IN FLOWERS 99 Sprengel described such forms as 'false nectar flowers.' The observations of Charles Darwin and Herm. Miiller have proved that the visitors bore into the juicy cellular tissue of our species of Orchis, and thus procure nourishment. Miiller has also shown that very probably some visitors of Cytisus Laburnum and Erythraea Centaurium bore for sap that is enclosed in the flowers, and it is not improbable that the more industrious b
RMRDEYBY. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. ALIGHTING-PLACES IN FLOWERS 99 Sprengel described such forms as 'false nectar flowers.' The observations of Charles Darwin and Herm. Miiller have proved that the visitors bore into the juicy cellular tissue of our species of Orchis, and thus procure nourishment. Miiller has also shown that very probably some visitors of Cytisus Laburnum and Erythraea Centaurium bore for sap that is enclosed in the flowers, and it is not improbable that the more industrious b
. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. . Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Mu?ller, Hermann, 1829-1883; Ainsworth Davis, J. R. (James Richard), 1861-1934. Oxford : Clarendon Press
RMPG28YT. Handbook of flower pollination : based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' . Fertilization of plants. . Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Knuth, Paul, 1854-1899; Mu?ller, Hermann, 1829-1883; Ainsworth Davis, J. R. (James Richard), 1861-1934. Oxford : Clarendon Press