France, History, 19th Century. Napoleon Bonaparte Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte, 15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821 was a military

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France, History, 19th Century. Napoleon Bonaparte Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte, 15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821 was a military
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Image ID: DFW5CM
France, History, 19th Century. Napoleon Bonaparte Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte, 15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821 was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century Napoleon was born in Corsica to parents of noble Genoese ancestry and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France Bonaparte rose to prominence under the First French Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France In 1799, he staged a coup d´état and installed himself as First Consul, five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European power After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon´s fortunes His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig, the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured that he was poisoned with arsenic Napoleon´s campaigns are studied at military academies the world over While considered a tyrant by his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment

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