. British bees : an introduction to the study of the natural history and economy of the bees indigenous to the British Isles . Bees; Hymenoptera. 30 BRITISH BEES.. the gullet and assists deglutition; the labium, or lower lip, and the true tongue. These parts are all single; the parts in pairs are the mandibles, the maxilla, the maxillary palpi, the labial palpi, and the paraglossa. The labrum, or upper lip, is attached by joint to the apex of the cly- peus; it has a ver- tical motion, and falls over the or- ; gans beneath it, in repose, -when it is itself covered by the mandibles. It is usuall

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. British bees : an introduction to the study of the natural history and economy of the bees indigenous to the British Isles . Bees; Hymenoptera. 30 BRITISH BEES.. the gullet and assists deglutition; the labium, or lower lip, and the true tongue. These parts are all single; the parts in pairs are the mandibles, the maxilla, the maxillary palpi, the labial palpi, and the paraglossa. The labrum, or upper lip, is attached by joint to the apex of the cly- peus; it has a ver- tical motion, and falls over the or- ; gans beneath it, in repose, -when it is itself covered by the mandibles. It is usually trans- verse in form, but is sometimes per- pendicular, espe- cially in the ar- tisan bees. It takes many forms, sometimes semilunar or linear, emarginate or entire, convex, concave, or flat, and is occasionally armed with one or two processes, like minute teeth projecting from its surface, but of what use these may be we do not know. In the female of Halictus, it has a slightly longitudinal appendage in the centre. It is usually horny, but is sometimes coriaceous or leathery. This labrum often yields good specific cha- racters. The pharynx, or gullet, is a cavity immediately be- neath the epipharynx, which articulates directly under the base of the labrum, and which closes the pharynx from above, and immediately beneath this cavity is another small appendage, almost triangular, which re- ceives the food or honey from the canal conveying it Fig. 7.—Trophi and their unfolding, a, labrum ; 6,epiphaTynx; c,pharynx; rf,hypopharj'nx; e,man- dible ; f, maxillae; g, maxillary palpi; A, mandible; i, cardium; k, labium j ?, labial palpi; m, paraglossa3; «, tongue.. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.. Shuckard, William Edward, 1802-1868. London : Reeve

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