. Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution; Smithsonian Institution. Archives; Discoveries in science. TRANSATLANTIC TELEPHONING. 301 these various transformations all the distinctive characteristics of the sound must be preserved. The vibrations of the transmitter disk, the electric waves that traverse the wire, the vibrations produced in the receiver disk, must retain all the elements that characterized the origi- nal vocal sounds. This must be, or we could not, as we do, recognize not onl}^ the spoken words, but the tone and modulations o

- Image ID: RM58N7
. Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution; Smithsonian Institution. Archives; Discoveries in science. TRANSATLANTIC TELEPHONING. 301 these various transformations all the distinctive characteristics of the sound must be preserved. The vibrations of the transmitter disk, the electric waves that traverse the wire, the vibrations produced in the receiver disk, must retain all the elements that characterized the origi- nal vocal sounds. This must be, or we could not, as we do, recognize not onl}^ the spoken words, but the tone and modulations o
Library Book Collection / Alamy Stock Photo
Image ID: RM58N7
. Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution; Smithsonian Institution. Archives; Discoveries in science. TRANSATLANTIC TELEPHONING. 301 these various transformations all the distinctive characteristics of the sound must be preserved. The vibrations of the transmitter disk, the electric waves that traverse the wire, the vibrations produced in the receiver disk, must retain all the elements that characterized the origi- nal vocal sounds. This must be, or we could not, as we do, recognize not onl}^ the spoken words, but the tone and modulations of the voice, and even the mood of the speaker. The imperfections of electrical conductors not only tend to enfeeble, but to distort the electric waves, and a little distortion is sufficient to change the character of the sound as it is reproduced, and render it unrecognizable. What is meant by a distorted wave may be seen from lig. 1, where a may i-epresent a wave as given to a telephone line, and i, c, d the same wave which has become distorted by a change in the relation of its elements during transmission; d would hardly be recognized as having an}-thing in common with a.. Fig. 1. Let us consider a little further the effect of the conducting line upon the waves that transmit speech. Speak the words ''soap" and "soup," "mine" and "mean." How do you make the distinction? By a little more or less opening of the mouth, and a little more or less pursing of the lips. Helmholtz has shown us in what respect the corresponding sound waves differ. It appears that it is only in the little waves superimposed upon the main wave, in the little ripples, so to speak, on the surface of the larger wave. The wave for the "ou" in "soup" might look like this: And the w^ave for the " o" in " soap," like this: Fig. 3.. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced

Search stock photos by tags


Similar stock images