A brief history of the nations and of their progress in civilization . up, with the Emperor himself, a triad. The Government of China. — The government of China is apaternal despotism. It is checked and modified, however, by.an established system of laws, for the observance of which theEmperor is held answerable. The remedy for lawlessness onhis part is revolution. The Arts in China. — In many useful arts the Chinese antici-pated other nations. Printing by wooden blocks was knownto them as early as the sixth century a.d. The first use ofmovable types among the Chinese, was perhaps as early as

A brief history of the nations and of their progress in civilization . up, with the Emperor himself, a triad. The Government of China. — The government of China is apaternal despotism. It is checked and modified, however, by.an established system of laws, for the observance of which theEmperor is held answerable. The remedy for lawlessness onhis part is revolution. The Arts in China. — In many useful arts the Chinese antici-pated other nations. Printing by wooden blocks was knownto them as early as the sixth century a.d. The first use ofmovable types among the Chinese, was perhaps as early as Stock Photo
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A brief history of the nations and of their progress in civilization . up, with the Emperor himself, a triad. The Government of China. — The government of China is apaternal despotism. It is checked and modified, however, by.an established system of laws, for the observance of which theEmperor is held answerable. The remedy for lawlessness onhis part is revolution. The Arts in China. — In many useful arts the Chinese antici-pated other nations. Printing by wooden blocks was knownto them as early as the sixth century a.d. The first use ofmovable types among the Chinese, was perhaps as early as thetenth century. Gunpowder was used as early as 250 a.d., andit has been thought that the compass was employed as a guidein journeys on land long before it was invented in Europe forpurposes of navigatioii. In various branches of manufactures — as silk, porcelain, 20 ORIENTAL NATIONS carved work in ivory, wood, and horn — the Chinese have, at least until a recent period, been preeminent. Their crudeimplements in hiisbandry are in contrast with their exhibi-. The Great Wall of China tions of skill in other directions. Although imitation longago stifled the activity of inventive talent, to China belongsthe distinction of being a civilized land before the nations ofEurope had emerged into being. CHAPTER III INDIA The Aryan Invaders. — The history of India begins in a con-test between the bands of Aryans who crossed the Himalayasfrom the northwest and snbdued its native inhabitants. TheVedas, the sacred books of the Sanskrit-speaking invaders, show them to us on the fertile plains watered by the Indus.This migration and conquest was probably somewhat earlierthan 2000 b.c. The Rigveda exhibits them as herdsmen, butwith a warlike spirit. The non-Aryan inhabitants were drivenout. The conquerors and even the conquered barbarians dweltin villages and towns. The former made use of boats. Theyhad learned to use chariots in battle. Among them Avereblacksmiths and other artisans. T

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